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Prevalence of
Convenient
Sampling
An investigation into
sampling trends in
online learning
research
Patrick R. Lowenthal &...
Online Growth
+ million
post-secondary
students
Source: Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010
Poor
Quality
Research
Studies “suffered from
weaknesses such as small
sample sizes; failure to
report retention rates for
...
Bias
Context matters: A
description and
typology of the
online learning
landscape.
www.patricklowenthal.com/publications/A...
Balance
What are the
sampling trends of
online learning
research?
What are the
sampling trends of
online learning
research focused on
social presence?
“social presence”
&
“online learning”
Ebsco--Academic Search Premier,
Applied Science & Tech full text
(H.W. Wilson), Comm...
“social presence”
&
“online learning”
102
studies
Results [Type of Publication]
4%
23%
73%
Journal
Dissertation
Journal
Conference
Results [Popular Outlets]
Journal of Interactive Online Learning
• 8 articles
Internet and Higher Education
• 8 articles
I...
Results [Methodology]
16% Mixed
methods
Results [Subject]
79%
9%
6%
6%
Education
Buisness
Nursing
Psychology
Results [Format]
19%
15%
1%
65%
Blended
Both
F2F
Online
Results [Level]
High School 4
Undergraduate 25
Graduate 35
6%
39%
55%
High School
Undergraduate
Graduate
Results [Sample Size]
• 13%: 10 or less students
• 24 %: 20 or less students
• 34%: 50 or more students
• 25%: 100 or more...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu
slides @ patricklowenthal.com
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AERA 2014 - Prevalence of Convenient Sampling: An investigation into sampling trends

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Prevalence of Convenient Sampling: An investigation into sampling trends in online learning research

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AERA 2014 - Prevalence of Convenient Sampling: An investigation into sampling trends

  1. 1. Prevalence of Convenient Sampling An investigation into sampling trends in online learning research Patrick R. Lowenthal & Ross Perkins Boise State University
  2. 2. Online Growth + million post-secondary students Source: Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010
  3. 3. Poor Quality Research Studies “suffered from weaknesses such as small sample sizes; failure to report retention rates for students in the conditions being contrasted; and, in many cases, potential bias stemming from the authors’ dual roles as experimenters and instructors” (Means et al., 2009, p. xviii) Online learning research is “severely wanting in terms of depth of reporting”
  4. 4. Bias Context matters: A description and typology of the online learning landscape. www.patricklowenthal.com/publications/AE CT2009TypologyOnlineLearning.pdf
  5. 5. Balance
  6. 6. What are the sampling trends of online learning research?
  7. 7. What are the sampling trends of online learning research focused on social presence?
  8. 8. “social presence” & “online learning” Ebsco--Academic Search Premier, Applied Science & Tech full text (H.W. Wilson), Communication & Mass Media Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO Key Words
  9. 9. “social presence” & “online learning” 102 studies
  10. 10. Results [Type of Publication] 4% 23% 73% Journal Dissertation Journal Conference
  11. 11. Results [Popular Outlets] Journal of Interactive Online Learning • 8 articles Internet and Higher Education • 8 articles International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning • 4 articles Journal of Asynchronous Learning • 4 articles Computers & Education • 4 articles
  12. 12. Results [Methodology] 16% Mixed methods
  13. 13. Results [Subject] 79% 9% 6% 6% Education Buisness Nursing Psychology
  14. 14. Results [Format] 19% 15% 1% 65% Blended Both F2F Online
  15. 15. Results [Level] High School 4 Undergraduate 25 Graduate 35 6% 39% 55% High School Undergraduate Graduate
  16. 16. Results [Sample Size] • 13%: 10 or less students • 24 %: 20 or less students • 34%: 50 or more students • 25%: 100 or more students • Mean: 101 • Mode: 6 • Median: 43 • Range: 2 to 709
  17. 17. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
  18. 18. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
  19. 19. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
  20. 20. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
  21. 21. patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu slides @ patricklowenthal.com

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