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Northwest eLearn 2016 Keynote

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Keynote

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Northwest eLearn 2016 Keynote

  1. 1. Revisiting Presence & Community in the Online Classroom Patrick R. Lowenthal @plowenthal slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  2. 2. A Bit about Me slides @ patricklowenthal.com Associate Professor @ Boise State educator researcher designer developer
  3. 3. slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  4. 4. { what are you working on these days? } { what are you most excited about? } slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  5. 5. HISTORY OF SOCIAL PRESENCE slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  6. 6. Social Presence Theory • Communications Studies Group at the University College in London in the 1970s • Short, J.A., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 6
  7. 7. Social Presence Theory Social presence is the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there) between two communicators using a communication medium.
  8. 8. slides @ patricklowenthal.com Less Social Presence More Social Presence
  9. 9. Focused on 1-on-1 slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  10. 10. 1980’s & CMC Cuelessness Theory developed by Rutter (1984, 1987) Media Richness Theory developed by Daft & Lengel (1984, 1986; Daft, Lengel, & Trevino, 1987) slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  11. 11. EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL PRESENCE slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  12. 12. Timeline slides @ patricklowenthal.com 1970 1976 1979 1984 1992 1995 1999
  13. 13. Phase Period Key Figures Focus of Research 1. 1970s Short et al. Focused on Telecommunications 2. 1980s to early 1990s Rutter Daft & Lengel Kiesler Walther Focused on CMC 3. Early 1990s to early 2000s Gunarwardena Garrison et al. Tu Swan Richardson Focused on Online Learning 4. Mid 2000s to present Garrison Shea Cleveland-Innes Akyol Swan Richardson Focused on Online Learning & the CoI slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  14. 14. slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  15. 15. slides @ patricklowenthal.com Affective Communication • Expression of emotions • Use of humor • Self-disclosure Cohesive Communication • Continuing a thread • Quoting from others’ messages • Referring explicitly to other’s messages • Asking questions • Complimenting, expressing appreciation • Expressing agreement Interactive Communication • Vocatives • Refers to group using inclusive pronouns • Phatics, salutations +
  16. 16. Focused on Many-to-Many slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  17. 17. Problem “Researchers of social presence cannot agree upon a single definition of social presence (Biocca & Harms, 7 2002; Biocca, Harms, & Burgoon, 2003; Rettie, 2003; Lane, 2011; Tu, 2002) Instead, researchers continue to redefine social presence (Lowenthal, 2010; Picciano, 2002)” slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  18. 18. Examples • “the ability of learners to project themselves socially and emotionally as well as their ability to perceive other learners as “real people””(Boston et al.) • “the degree to which participants in computer-mediated communication feel affectively connected one to another… (Swan, Garrison, & Richardson, 2009).” slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  19. 19. Definitions… 1. “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (Gunawardena, 1995, p. 151) 2. the ability of learners to project themselves socially and affectively into a community of inquiry (Rourke et al., 1999) 3. “…the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC” (Tu & McIsaac, 2002) 4. “…a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano, 2002, p. 22)
  20. 20. Garrison “the ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities” (Garrison, 2009, p. 352). slides @ patricklowenthal.com “the ability of participants in the Community of Inquiry to project their personal characteristics into the community, thereby presenting themselves to the other participants as ``real people.'’ (Garrison et al., 1999)
  21. 21. slides @ patricklowenthal.com Emotional Nonemotional Connection Nonconnection Community Noncommunity An Individual Real Person
  22. 22. Common Elements slides @ patricklowenthal.com BelongingReal There Connection
  23. 23. Social Presence slides @ patricklowenthal.com Learning Community =
  24. 24. Social Presence slides @ patricklowenthal.com Learning Community =
  25. 25. Building Community Interaction Social Presence Collaboration Community
  26. 26. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNITY slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  27. 27. Birth of an Idea? slides @ patricklowenthal.com 1991
  28. 28. 1998 Birth of an Idea? slides @ patricklowenthal.com 1991
  29. 29. slides @ patricklowenthal.com “Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly” Etienne Wenger
  30. 30. slides @ patricklowenthal.com Etienne Wenger “Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly”
  31. 31. Obsessed with an Idea slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  32. 32. Theoretical Support slides @ patricklowenthal.com Increased focus on importance of community in learning environments (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999; Brown & Campione, 1994; Hill, 1985)
  33. 33. ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITIES slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  34. 34. What does a learning community look like? slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  35. 35. What does a learning community look like? This? slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  36. 36. What does a learning community look like? Or this? slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  37. 37. What does an online learning community look like? slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  38. 38. What does an online learning community look like? This? slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  39. 39. CoI’s Perspective slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  40. 40. Bounded Communities Participation is required slides @ patricklowenthal.com Don’t choose classmates or instructor Fixed length of time Explicit effort to connect with others (Wilson et al., 2004)
  41. 41. Bounded Communities Participation is required slides @ patricklowenthal.com Don’t choose classmates or instructor Fixed length of time Explicit effort to connect with others (Wilson et al., 2004)
  42. 42. Bounded Communities Participation is required slides @ patricklowenthal.com Don’t choose classmates or instructor Fixed length of time Explicit effort to connect with others (Wilson et al., 2004)
  43. 43. Bounded Communities Participation is required slides @ patricklowenthal.com Don’t choose classmates or instructor Fixed length of time Explicit effort to connect with others (Wilson et al., 2004)
  44. 44. BENEFITS OF ONLINE COMMUNITY slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  45. 45. Popular Books slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  46. 46. Benefits of Community Provide a social context for the material slides @ patricklowenthal.com Bridge between school & work environments Students feel more connected within a community (Wilson et al., 2004)
  47. 47. Benefits of Community Provide a social context for the material slides @ patricklowenthal.com Bridge between school & work environments Students feel more connected within a community (Wilson et al., 2004)
  48. 48. Benefits of Community Provide a social context for the material slides @ patricklowenthal.com Bridge between school & work environments Students feel more connected within a community (Wilson et al., 2004)
  49. 49. Where to Begin??? Student-to-student Interaction & presence slides @ patricklowenthal.com Student-to-teacher Interaction & presence Collaboration
  50. 50. Learners Are Diverse slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  51. 51. Privilege Certain Types slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  52. 52. { When is there too much? } slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  53. 53. Building Community Interaction Social Presence Collaboration Community
  54. 54. Quality Matters slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  55. 55. { When is there not enough? } slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  56. 56. Good Instruction Effective instruction meets established learning goals and objectives; Efficient instruction does so with minimal expenditure of resources, particularly time; Appealing instruction draws the sustained attention and positive response of learners (Wilson, Parrish, & Veletsianos, 2008) slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  57. 57. Engagement While appeal suggests merely the ability to draw learners to the experience (a unidirectional force), engagement suggests a reciprocating relationship that changes the nature of the experience. Rather than just being sufficiently attracted to pay attention, learners invest creative effort and emotional commitment—and a willingness to risk in anticipation of valued outcomes. slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  58. 58. Good Instruction • Effective • Efficient • Engaging (Wilson, Parrish, & Veletsianos, 2008) slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  59. 59. Quality Matters slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  60. 60. { Obsession w/ Outcomes } slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  61. 61. { Not enough focus on engagement } slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  62. 62. { Be Better than QM } slides @ patricklowenthal.com
  63. 63. CONTACT ME Patrick Lowenthal patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu www.patricklowenthal.com

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