There are two levels here to evaluate: what is going on, and what people think is going on; the facts, and perceived facts; the world of physical, material objects and the world of meanings ascribed to these objects. The relation between these two levels is often complicated. For example, a sufficient sociological explanation would not only explain to people that what they believe to be true is in fact only partially true or false, but also, to explain what about the real world leads to their being deluded about it in the first place!
Remember the first one by Dennis Wrong. Wrong limits his definition to direct (non-mediated) and unidirectional influence between individuals. He also excludes from consideration power over objects (e.g. nature) or power over one’s self. Power entails achieving a desired influence on someone else. Moreover, if power is a capacity, it is not always directly observable and need not always be exercised. General rule: the intensity and comprehensiveness of power tend to vary inversely with its extensiveness. (The more people you influence, the more narrow your influence on their lives. It is possible for logistical reasons to influence only a few people (close friends and family, for instance) in intense and comprehensive ways.
“Coercion” is not physical force proper, but is defined as the “threat of force” and falls under the heading “authority.”
Institutions like slavery or other forms of domination cannot rely on force alone. Instead, they have to rely on the threat of force: coercion, which is considered a form of authority.
Occurs when people are used. If the influencer is up-front and open about his/her intentions, then it isn’t manipulation. Manipulation can occur for many purposes: religious proselytizing; monetary gain; sex; etc. Manipulation, by definition, cannot be anticipated.
In persuasion, the content of the communication induces compliance (after being independently evaluated). In authority, the source of the communication induces compliance.
Social structure, institution, socialization (ch 8, 9, 10)
SocialStructures, Institutions, andSocializationNotes to chapters 8, 9, 10
SOCIAL STRUCTURESTATUSES ROLESSocial StructureAscribedAchieved• Social structure refers to the way society is organized.• Status = is a position in a social structure.• Role = how we (generally) expect members of a status tobehave.– Statuses and Roles exist independently of their ‘incumbents’ or‘occupants’Expectation Performance
Statuses• You can think of (sets of) statuses as differentways of categorizing people in differentsituations.– Examples: Family statuses, occupational statuses, social class statuses, demographic statuses, etc.1. Achieved statuses – positions that are achievedby the individuals for themselves (but notalways on purpose); these statuses can change.2. Ascribed statuses – statuses given to individualsgenerally at birth, and from which they cannotescape; these statuses are fixed.
Statuses• Master Status- the most important statussomeone occupies (as perceived by others)• Status Symbol- material sign that indicatessomeone’s status.
Roles• Roles- how we expect occupants of a socialstatus to behave and their attempt to meetthose expectations in role performances.– Role = the common denominator among alloccupants of a status; (i.e. what they all have incommon)• Role Conflict- a situation in whichincompatible role demands are placed on aperson by two or more statuses at the sametime.
Primary and Secondary Groups• Primary group: the people we spend the most time with; acommon whole, a “WE.” (George Horton Cooley)• Secondary group: a larger, more specialized group in whichmembers engage in impersonal, goal-oriented relationships.PRIMARY GROUP SECONDARY GROUPRelationships are ends in themselves Relationships are viewed as means toan end (e.g. money)Tend to be small in size; intimateassociationTend to be larger in sizePersonal or individual qualities aremost importantYour status, rather than personalattributes are most importantThe family is typically the first and themost enduring source of influence onthe individualThe most important secondary groupis the formal organization (e.g.bureaucracy)
Social Structures• Social structure is made up of statuses androles. A status is a position in a socialstructure, and the role is how we (generally)expect members of a status to behave.• Statuses and Roles exist independently oftheir ‘incumbents’ or ‘occupants’
Status• A social status is a ‘position that a personoccupies in a social structure’– You can think of these are different ways ofcategorizing people in different situations.– Examples: Family statuses, occupational statuses, social class statuses, demographic statuses, etc.1. Achieved statuses – positions that are achieved bythe individuals for themselves (but not always onpurpose); these statuses can change.2. Ascribed statuses – statuses given to individualsgenerally at birth, and from which they cannotescape; these statuses are fixed.
Role• A role is the ‘sum total of expectations aboutbehavior attached to a particular social status’;how we expect occupants of a social status tobehave.– ‘Occupants of a social status are expected to performcertain roles’– Role = the common denominator among all occupantsof a status; (i.e. removing all idiosyncracies, what theyall have in common)– Example: I have the status of ‘teacher’; My role is toteach.
Three Problems1. Role Strain– Overwhelm, Stress with a single role2. Status Inconsistency– Ascribed vs. Achieved statuses3. Role Conflict– Conflict of interest; clashing expectationsbetween many roles
Society and Social Institutions• Society = the totality of people and socialrelations in a given geographic space.– Societies, unlike groups, are self-sufficient: ‘nogroup, no matter how large, qualifies as a societyunless it provides the resources to answer all of itsmembers’ basic needs’ (p. 140)• Social Institutions = An institution is anaccepted and persistent constellation ofstatuses, roles, values, and norms thatrespond to important societal needs.
The Family as a Social InstitutionStatuses Mother, father, son, daughterRole expectations Wives and husbands must be sexually faithful to oneanotherValues ‘All for one, and one for all’;Norms Help one another; children treat parents with respect;parents treat children equally
Basic Needs and Social InstitutionsSocietal Needs Social InstitutionsHave continual supply of newmembersThe familySocialize new members The family, Education, ReligionDeal with health and sickness MedicineAssign jobs and tasks Education, labor marketCreate knowledge Science, religionControl its members Law enforcement, judicial system, religionDefend against enemies Government, militaryProduce and exchange goods Economic system
Nature of Social Institutions1. Institutions generally unplanned, and developgradually2. Institutions are inherently conservative andchange slowly3. Society’s institutions are interdependent: achange in one leads to changes in the others4. The statuses, roles, values, and normsassociated with an institution in one society maybe very different from those in another society.
Socialization• Socialization = the lifelong process of socialinteraction through which individuals acquirea self-identity and the skills necessary toachieve cultural competency.– Agents of Socialization include theFamily, Schools, Mass Media, Peer Groups, andthe Workplace• Social self = the relatively organized complexof attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviorsassociated with an individual
What is REAL?• Thomas theorem: "If people definesituations as real, they are real in theirconsequences“– To understand human inter-actions andrelations, sociologists have to understandboth reality, and perceived reality.– ‘There is always a conflict betweenspontaneous definitions of the situationmade by members of a society, and thedefinitions which this society provides forhim’W. I. Thomas1863 - 1947
Irving Goffman• Social roles and the ‘Definition of theSituation’– We are always performing social roles –social roles are the expectations about thebehavior attached to our social status, i.e.how we are expected to behave.– Roles are scripted; content of roles providedto us by society, but roles are not necessarilyfake or insincere!– Most effective way to ensure a convincingrole performance is to influence thedefinition of the situation: how things aredefined initially will influence enormouslypeople’s subsequent behaviors andexpectations…
Irving Goffman• Rituals: refers to all those simplified,exaggerated, stereotyped behaviorsthat signal or display particularemotions or social statuses in asituation• Interaction rituals: are theinstitutionalized, frequentlyunspoken, ways of behaving in asociety.– Example: how to say ‘hello’ and‘goodbye’ in a culture.
Play and Games• Play: in play, there are no rules; the child makesit up as he or she goes along.– Play is the first step toward constructing a “Me”• Games: games have rules and specific roles (e.g.batter, pitcher, catcher, outfielder); the rulesspecify how the person in each role participates– In Mead’s view, the roles and the rules of games are‘impersonal’.– Participating in games enhances the ability ofchildren for role-taking, to see other people’s pointsof view, and to acquire a generalized other (pg. 161)
Charles H. Cooley“The looking-glass self”• The individual internalizes the attitudesof others toward him/her (“Me”) andresponds or reacts to those attitudes(“I”)• The self emerges out of socialinteraction: selves can only exist indefinite relationships to others selves• ‘Generalized Other’: we internalize oranticipate how others we don’t knowwill expect us to behave;– “the community and society in which welive” (p.261)– The collectively shared consensualmeanings in society
Charles H. Cooley“The looking-glass self”1. We imagine how we look to theother person2. We imagine the other person’sreaction to our appearance3. In response, we have somefeeling, such as pride or shame
George Herbert Mead• Influenced by Pragmatism, school ofAmerican philosophy• Focus on practical conditions andconsequences of action The Self• Self = Dynamic interaction between the“I” (subject) and the “Me” (object).• The ‘ME’ sees myself as an object, asothers see me; the ‘I’ is my response tomy perception of how I think others seeme in this situation.• Children are not born with an I and aME!
George Herbert Mead• Play: in play, there are no rules; the child makesit up as he or she goes along.– Play is the first step toward constructing a “Me”• Games: games have rules and specific roles (e.g.batter, pitcher, catcher, outfielder); the rulesspecify how the person in each role participates– In Mead’s view, the roles and the rules of games are‘impersonal’.– Participating in games enhances the ability ofchildren for role-taking, to see other people’s pointsof view, and to acquire a generalized other (pg. 161)
INFLUENCEUNINTENDED(unconscious)EMERGENCE1.FORCE 2.MANIPULATION 3.PERSUASION 4.AUTHORITYCoerciveInducedLegitimateCompetentPersonalTypes of Influence
Definitions of Power1. Dennis Wrong: power is thecapacity to intentionally influenceothers.2. Bertrand Russell: “power is theactual production of intendedeffects”3. Max Weber: ‘the chance of a manor a number of men to realize theirown will even against the resistanceof others...’Russell(1872-1970)Weber(1864-1920)
Forms of Power (intended influence)I. ForceII. ManipulationIII. PersuasionIV. Authority:– Coercion, Induced, Legitimate, Competent, andPersonal• * Note: all forms of power except ‘force’must be communicated.
1. Force• Force = treating a human as an object. Note: this only refersto the application of force, not to the threat of force.• Violence is the ultimate form of force: assaulting the body toinflict pain, injury, suffering, or even death.Depiction of slave whippingMedieval torture
2. Manipulation(aka ‘Fraud’)• Definition: any deliberateattempt to influence or elicit adesired response from anotherperson, *where the desiredresponse is not explicitlycommunicated to the otherperson*– Spontaneous, informal interactiondepends on the shared belief thatmanipulation isn’t taking place.Shamwow!
3. Persuasion• Persuasion occurs wheneversomeone agrees with someoneelse’s arguments or appeals afterevaluating them independently inlight of his/her own interests.• Persuasion implies a context ofopen and freecommunication, with noanticipation of punishments orrewards, i.e. without any feltneed to do what the other wants.
4. Authority• Authority is successful ordering or forbidding– A relationship of command and obedience.– Persuasion = tested acceptance; Authority = untestedacceptance.• 5 types (based on motivations for obeying):1. Coercion (punishments, threat of force)2. Induced (rewards such as money)3. Legitimate (rights to command, obligations to obey)4. Competent (based on perceived expertise)5. Personal (based on desire to please)
Personal authority• Personal authority is usuallylow in extensiveness (# of peopleit influences): e.g. a lover whodeclares ‘your wish is mycommand!’• But charismatic leaders usepersonal authority togenerate mass followingsthat challenge the traditionalorder.Mussolini and Hitler are(negative) examplesof charismatic leaders