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Chapter 5-Social Interaction


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Chapter 5-Social Interaction

  1. 1. SOCIAL INTERACTION <ul><li>CHAPTER </li></ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul>
  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following: <ul><li>Know the major types of social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the influence of contexts and norms in social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concepts of status and role. </li></ul><ul><li>Know the difference between role strain and role conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Know what Ethnomethodology is. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Dramaturgy’s view of social interaction </li></ul>
  3. 3. SOCIAL INTERACTION <ul><li>Social interaction is a central concept to understanding the nature of social life. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Weber in order to take other’s actions into account requires “verstehen” or sympathetic understanding. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOCIAL INTERACTION <ul><li>A main goal of sociology is to explain social action (Anything people are conscious of doing because of other people). </li></ul><ul><li>Social Interaction is two or more people taking one another into account in building up their actions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three elements that define the CONTEXT of a social interaction
  6. 6. NORMS <ul><li>What makes human beings act predictably in certain situations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The presence of norms – rules about what we should and should not do in a situation All groups and subgroups have norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEF - Norms are specific rules of behavior , agreed upon and shared, that prescribe limits of acceptable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Often they are not written, over even consciously reflected upon. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ROLE PLAYING <ul><li>The statuses we inhabit and the roles we play can have a profound influence on both our attitudes and our behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Playing a new social role often feels awkward at first, and we may feel we are just acting or pretending to be something that we are not. </li></ul><ul><li>When we are unsure of role expectations we try to get cues (hints) from the behavior of those around us. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two methods of social interaction, nonverbal and spoken <ul><li>nonverbal </li></ul><ul><li>Waving hand </li></ul><ul><li>interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Yawn </li></ul>
  9. 9. OTHER EXAMPLES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION <ul><li>SCOWL </li></ul><ul><li>SHAKING A FIST </li></ul><ul><li>NODDING HEAD UP AND DOWN </li></ul><ul><li>CROSSING ARMS ACROSS CHEST </li></ul><ul><li>RAISING EYEBROWS </li></ul><ul><li>What do each of these mean??? </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4 TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION <ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: When people do something for each other with the express purpose of receiving a reward or return, they are involved in an exchange interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: A cooperative interaction occurs when people act together to promote common interests or achieve shared goals </li></ul>
  11. 11. TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION <ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts arise when people or groups have incompatible values or when the rewards or resources available to a society or its members are limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is a form of conflict in which individuals or groups confine their conflict within agreed-upon rules. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4 TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION <ul><li>Conflict always involves an attempt to gain or use power . </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is not always negative. </li></ul><ul><li>One Problem with conflict is that it: </li></ul><ul><li>often leads to unhappiness and violence which causes many people to view it negatively </li></ul>
  13. 13. Elements of Social Interaction Statuses Roles Roles Sets Role Strains
  14. 14. STATUS <ul><li>Statuses - DEF - Socially defined positions that people occupy </li></ul><ul><li>Master Status – DEF – The status that dominates in the pattern of your life </li></ul><ul><li>Statuses can pertain to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer work, hobbies and other things </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. ASCRIBED VS ACHIEVED STATUS <ul><li>Ascribed statuses </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Conferred upon us by our background our placement in them is not due to our actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieved statuses </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Occupied as a result of the individual’s actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Group Member </li></ul><ul><li>Education Level </li></ul>
  16. 16. STATUS AND ROLES <ul><li>Each status may include a number of roles, and each role will be appropriate to a specific social context. </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: Roles are the culturally defined rules for proper behavior that are associated with every status. </li></ul><ul><li>Any one person may occupy numerous statuses, each with multiple roles (expectations of behavior) attached to them </li></ul>
  17. 17. STATUS AND ROLES <ul><li>DEF - Role Sets </li></ul><ul><li>All the roles attached to a single status are known collectively as a role set . </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s role behaviors depend on the statuses of the other people with whom he or she is interacting. </li></ul>
  18. 18. STATUS AND ROLES <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>STATUS: SERVICE EMPLOYEE </li></ul><ul><li>ROLES: (CUSTOMER) SERVICER </li></ul><ul><li>WORKER (TO BOSS) </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINER (TO NEW </li></ul><ul><li>WORKER) </li></ul>
  19. 19. ROLE STRAIN <ul><li>DEF - Role Strain, When a single role has conflicting demands, individuals who play that role experience role strain </li></ul><ul><li>EX: FACTORY WORKER </li></ul><ul><li>- TURN OUT QUALITY PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>- KEEP THE PRODUCTION LINE MOVING QUICKLY </li></ul>
  20. 20. ROLE CONFLICT <ul><li>DEF: When someone has more than one status at a time and who is unable to enact the roles of one status without violating those of another status </li></ul><ul><li>EX: ELKS CLUB MEMBER AND POLICEMAN </li></ul><ul><li>Find out that the club has broken laws and duty to the job (law) conflicts with expectations of the club members (support the good of group). </li></ul>
  21. 21. DRAMATURGY - GOFFMAN <ul><li>A Theatrical Metaphor for social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>In order to create an impression, people play roles, and their performance is judged by others who are alert to any slips that might contradict the role being asserted. </li></ul><ul><li>These interactions are governed by planned behavior designed to enable an individual to present a particular image to others. In everyday interaction this is to meet the expectations of the role, not to fool or deceive others. </li></ul>
  22. 22. DRAMATURGY <ul><li>THEATRE </li></ul><ul><li>ACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>PLAYING PARTS </li></ul><ul><li>ON A STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>BEFORE AN AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>REAL LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONS </li></ul><ul><li>PERFORMING ROLES </li></ul><ul><li>IN SOCIAL SETTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>BEFORE A GROUP OF OTHERS </li></ul>
  23. 23. GOFFMAN <ul><li>Impression Management – This is the tendency to put the “best foot forward” in social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Front Stage – Is where presentations of self (or teams) occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Back Stage – I private areas for rehearsal of public presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Role Distance – Placing distance between one’s self and ones self as part of a role </li></ul>
  24. 24. GOFFMAN <ul><li>Civil Inattention – (studied nonobservance) – acting as if you did not see something </li></ul><ul><li>This smoothes out disturbances in public places </li></ul><ul><li>It deemphasizes the breading of the civil code of behavior and allows normal interaction to continue </li></ul><ul><li>Primary goal of all participants is to interact without damage to any person or the public as a whole </li></ul>
  25. 25. ETHNOMETHODOLOGY Garfinkel <ul><li>DEF: The study of the sets of rules (norms) used to initiate behavior, respond to behavior, and modify behavior in social settings. Social construction of reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Method - observe social settings up close </li></ul><ul><li>see how things are done </li></ul><ul><li>understand how meaning is </li></ul><ul><li>built up by the participants. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ETHNOMETHODOLOGY <ul><li>Ethnomethodologists believe: </li></ul><ul><li>There are unwritten rules for social behavior that are shared, but not always consciously known to the participants </li></ul><ul><li>If these are broken, communication is impaired or impossible </li></ul><ul><li>All social interactions are equally important to understanding society </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Breeching – Disrupting the taken for granted world </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling – Provided random answers to subjects questions </li></ul><ul><li>Queing – Scatter a line at a counter through a distraction and observe it reforming. </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH SHOWED THAT PEOPLE NATURALLY IMPOSE ORDER ON SITUATIONS </li></ul>