Chapter 6<br />Societies to Social Networks<br />
What is a Group?<br />Group: People who have something in common and believe what they have in common is significant; also...
Societies and Their Transformation<br />Domestication Revolution : the first revolution , based on the domestication of pa...
Societies and Their Transformation<br />Pastoral Society: a society based on the pasturing of animals<br />Horticultural S...
Societies and Their Transformation<br />Agricultural Revolution: the second social revolution, based on the invention of t...
Societies and Their Transformation<br />Industrial  Revolution: The third social revolution, occurring when machines power...
Societies and Their Transformation<br />Industrial Society: a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels...
Groups Within Society<br />Aggregate: individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves ...
Groups Within Society<br />In groups: groups toward which we feel loyalty<br />Out groups: groups toward which we feel ant...
Groups Within Society<br />Reference group: a group that we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves (page 162)<br />Expose...
Groups Within Society<br />Clique: a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another; an i...
Groups Within Society<br />Electronic Community: individuals who regularly interact with one another on the internet and w...
Group Dynamics<br />Group Dynamics: the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence ind...
Group Dynamics<br />Dyad: the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons<br />Triad:  a group consisting of three ...
Leadership<br />Who Becomes a Leader?<br />Leader: Someone who influences other people<br />Types of Leaders<br />Instrume...
Leadership<br />Leadership Styles<br />Authoritarian:  an individual who leads by giving orders <br />Democratic: an indiv...
Group Dynamics<br />Power of Peer Pressure—Asch Experiment<br />Study on Conformity<br />Page 171<br />Power of Authority—...
Groupthink - Global Consequences<br />Groupthink: a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception t...
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Chapter 6 Societies To Social Networks

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Chapter 6 Societies To Social Networks

  1. 1. Chapter 6<br />Societies to Social Networks<br />
  2. 2. What is a Group?<br />Group: People who have something in common and believe what they have in common is significant; also called a social group<br />Society: people who share a culture and a territory<br />
  3. 3. Societies and Their Transformation<br />Domestication Revolution : the first revolution , based on the domestication of pants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies<br />Hunting and Gathering Society – a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival <br />Usually Nomadic<br />Usually have a shaman: the healing specialist of a tribe who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease or injury; commonly called a with doctor<br />
  4. 4. Societies and Their Transformation<br />Pastoral Society: a society based on the pasturing of animals<br />Horticultural Society: a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools<br />
  5. 5. Societies and Their Transformation<br />Agricultural Revolution: the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural societies<br />Agricultural Society: a society based on large scale agriculture; plows drawn by animals are the source of food production<br />
  6. 6. Societies and Their Transformation<br />Industrial Revolution: The third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power<br />
  7. 7. Societies and Their Transformation<br />Industrial Society: a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels. <br />Postindustrial (Information) Society: a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing.<br />Biotech - New Type?<br />See page 157<br />Biotech Society: a society whose economy increasingly centers around the application of genetics – human genetics for medicine, and plant and animal genetics for the production of food and materials<br />
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  10. 10. Groups Within Society<br />Aggregate: individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together (people on a busy street)<br />Category: people who have similar characteristics (redheads)<br />Primary Group: a group characterized by intimate, long-term face-to-face association and cooperation <br />Secondary Group: compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity. Its members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statuses <br />
  11. 11. Groups Within Society<br />In groups: groups toward which we feel loyalty<br />Out groups: groups toward which we feel antagonism<br />
  12. 12. Groups Within Society<br />Reference group: a group that we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves (page 162)<br />Expose Us to Contradictory Standards<br />Social Network: the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together<br />
  13. 13. Groups Within Society<br />Clique: a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another; an internal faction<br />
  14. 14. Groups Within Society<br />Electronic Community: individuals who regularly interact with one another on the internet and who think of themselves as belonging together<br />Facebook, Myspace, Twitter, Chatrooms, ect.<br />
  15. 15. Group Dynamics<br />Group Dynamics: the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals<br />Group Size Affects Stability and Intimacy<br />The Larger the Group…<br />Greater Diffusion of Responsibility<br />Increase in Formality<br />Division into Smaller Groups<br />
  16. 16. Group Dynamics<br />Dyad: the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons<br />Triad: a group consisting of three people<br />As Size Increases, So Does Stability<br />As Size Increases, Intensity and Intimacy Decrease<br />Coalitions: the alignment of some members of a group against others<br />Small group: a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members<br />Networking: using one’s social networks for some gain<br />
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  18. 18. Leadership<br />Who Becomes a Leader?<br />Leader: Someone who influences other people<br />Types of Leaders<br />Instrumental: an individual who tries to keep the group moving towards its goals; also known as a task oriented leader<br />Expressive: an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader<br />
  19. 19. Leadership<br />Leadership Styles<br />Authoritarian: an individual who leads by giving orders <br />Democratic: an individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus <br />Laissez-Faire: an individual who leads by being highly permissive<br />Leadership Styles in Changing Situations<br />
  20. 20. Group Dynamics<br />Power of Peer Pressure—Asch Experiment<br />Study on Conformity<br />Page 171<br />Power of Authority—Milgram Experiment<br />Administering Shocks<br />Page 172<br />
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  22. 22. Groupthink - Global Consequences<br />Groupthink: a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer; to even suggest alternatives becomes a sign of diloyalty<br />Page 173 ex. NASA , Roosevelt<br />

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