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  1. 1. Presented by: Herlinda Santillan Gomez SELECTED TOPICS IN SOCIAL STUDIES Part I
  2. 2. Why does Britain have high levels of teen pregnancy than other European countries?
  3. 3. Why do man tend to earn more money than woman?
  4. 4. Why is there a need to formulate international treaties and agreements among nations?
  5. 5. -Study of group interaction were process is vital; from this, pattern of behavior evolve. -Relationship is developed and group life is achieved. SOCIOLOGY:
  6. 6. *( Aguste Comte) Father of sociology, - Science of social phenomena, subject to natural and invariable laws, the discovery of which is the object of investigation.
  7. 7. *(Kingsley Davis)- Sociology is a general science of society, social institution, collective behavior, social behavior man in relation to men. *(Joseph Fichter)- Sociology is a scientific study of patterned shared human behavior.
  8. 8. SOCIETY -is a group of individuals who share a common territory, interact with each other, and have a common culture.
  9. 9. SOCIAL INTERACTION -process by w/c people act and react in relation to others. In this process, language, gestures and symbols were used. - Much of what we do everyday is interaction, this happens because almost all human behavior is oriented toward other people since they are constantly aware of the effects that their actions and reaction have upon others.
  10. 10. People accomplish some aim and is always directed toward specific other people. Normally we interact w/ our family, neighbors, friends, teacher etc. (involve formal and informal pattern) - Personal proximity is however not always needed in social interaction (letter, telephone, and internet).
  11. 11. -Society has a social structure which is the organized relationship among components of the social system. - This structure is made up of intertwining social statuses and social roles.
  12. 12. Elements of Social Interaction Status Ascribe Achieve Role
  13. 13. ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION I. STATUSES- status means “prestige” in sociology status refers particularly to a position in social structure, any position that determines where a person “fits” within the society. -According to Macionis (2004) status is the most important component of social interaction. -Represent socially defined position (bank president /bank teller).
  14. 14. SOCIAL STATUS - is the position within the social network. - That is to say it is one’s place in the overall structure (ex. Doctor, etc.)
  15. 15. SOCIAL ROLE - is the behaviors and attitudes that pertain to a particular social status. - Individuals occupy many statuses simultaneously at a given time. - We occupy status, but play a role - So each status calls forth different social role behaviors.
  16. 16. Two Classification of Status: 1. Ascribed Status- assigned to people without effort on this part. Social received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in the life course.( being a mother, teenager, senior citizen)
  17. 17. 2. Achieved Status- social position that is assumed voluntarily and that reflects significant measure of personal ability and efforts. Attained through the personal effort of the individual.
  18. 18. - So in essence ascribed status is WHO YOU ARE and achieve status is WHAT YOU DO.
  19. 19. - It has to be noted that what people achieve is heavily shape by the opportunity structure (son on squatters compare to son of rich businessmen living in Forbes Park in Makati)
  20. 20. ROLES- collection of cultural defined rights, obligation and expectations that accompany a status in a social system. - Pattern of social behavior attached to a particular status. - With so many roles and statuses, overlap may occur. When this in a case many roles and statuses experience role conflict.
  21. 21. ROLE CONFLICT- occurs when one playing two roles at the time that are governed by incompatible norms. Ex. If you are a police officer and you pull over your wife for speeding, your role of husband and lawman are in conflict.
  22. 22. SOCIALIZATION - process where people learn how to play their roles by observing and interacting w/ other people who are more experience than themselves. - When one occupies too many goals one can experience role strain.
  23. 23. Reasons- Others expect too much of…… - You expect too much of yourself Variables- Your level of tolerance to stress Remedies- You can alter the expectation of other people. - Alter the expectation of yourself - Drop out the social roles or role.
  24. 24. ROLE FAILURE- when one cannot perform the social role that he off her has taken on. - So for example, if I set out to play the role of a professor, but I could not teach effectively I would be fired. - When we acquire new roles it is likely we will experience role ambiguity. - When one drops out of a role it is likely we will experience role ambiguity.
  25. 25. ROLE AMBIGUITY- occur when one unsure how to play a certain social role. - A simple cure is to keep your mouth shut and observe your environment. This will allow you to learn the norms and thus cure your role ambiguity.
  26. 26. FRAMEWORKS USED IN INTERACTION  A. Defining the Situation- process by w/ people interpret and evaluate the social context to select appropriate attitudes and behavior.  - our behavior is determined not only by our status and role but by the definition of the situation, a stage of deliberation and examination during w/c we define and interpret the social context in which we find ourselves, asses our interest, and select specific attitudes or behaviors accordingly.  - We construct our own social reality. According to Thomas if people define situation
  27. 27. B. Presentation of the self- All of us has an image of how we want to be seen by others. FRAMEWORKS USED IN INTERACTION
  28. 28. C. Negotiated Order- People can reconstruct social reality through the process of internal change as they take a different view of everyday behavior. - reshape reality by negotiating changes in patterns of social interaction. NEGOTIATION- refers to the attempt of one to reach agreement w/ others concerning some objectives (Bargaining, mediating, trading off). FRAMEWORKS USED IN INTERACTION
  29. 29. TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION  1. Exchange- involve when people do something for each other with the expressed purpose of receiving a reward or return.
  30. 30. TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION 2. Cooperation- collaborative effort between people to achieve a common goal.
  31. 31. 3. Conflict- direct struggle between individuals or group over commonly valued resources or goals. TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION
  32. 32. 4. Competition- from of conflict in which there agreement in the means that can be use to pursue an end. - More rules and limits that impose on the interaction (rules employed in given sports). TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION
  33. 33. 5. Negotiation- In this process, two or more competing parties reach a mutually satisfactory agreement, however when the negotiation fails, conflict or coercion sometimes occurs. TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION
  34. 34. 6. Coercion- one-sided, one imposing an action or behavior on another (relationship between the guard and the prisoner, master and slaves) - use physical force like that between group of rallies’ of demonstrators - involve the use of social sanction such as TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION
  36. 36. Anthropology: the science of human beings; especially : the study of human beings and their ancestors through time and space and in relation to physical character, environmental and social relations, and culture.
  37. 37. The relation between sociology and anthropology is widely recognized today. Anthropology is " concerned not with particular man but with man in groups, with races and peoples and their happenings and doings". According to Hoebel, " Sociology and Social Anthropology are, in their broadest sense one and the same". Sociology has borrowed many concepts log, cultural patterns, cultural configuration, etc., from socio-cultural anthropology. Anthropology as a discipline is so closely related to sociology that the two are frequently indistinguishable.
  38. 38. Political science deals with the political activities of man. It studies social groups organized under the sovereignty of the state. " Historically, sociology has its main root in politics and philosophy of history "- Morries Ginsberg. " Political is embedded in the social that if political science remains distinct from sociology, it will be because of the breadth of the field calls for the specialist, not because there are any well- defined boundaries marking it off from sociology"- Garner. Sociology is the science of state and government. Sociology is the young science and political science is older science.
  39. 39. (Thomas)- " Economics is, in fact, but one branch of the comprehensive science of sociology ". -study of wealth and on the other and more important side a part of the study of man ". Sociologists have contributed to the study of different aspects of economic organization. Sociology studies all kinds of social relationships but economics deals with only those social relationships which are economic.
  40. 40. sciences. Psychology has been defined as the study of human behaviour. In the words of Thouless, " Psychology is the positive science of human experience and behaviour ". As Krech and Crutchfield define, " Social Psychology is the science of the behaviour of the individual in society ". Social psychology helps us a great deal in facing several social problems. Murphy " Social psychology is the study of the way in which the individual becomes members of and functions in a social groups ". Sociology analyses social processes but social psychology analysis mental processes of man
  41. 41. History : a narration of the events which have happened among mankind, including an account of the rise and fall of nations, as well as of other great changes which have affected the political and social condition of the human race.