Antibiotics,antibiotics resistances,classification of antibiotics,misuse of antibiotics details discussed here. for more information visit my blog helpful for pharmacy and medical student.thanks.
Antibiotics : Substance (such as penicillin) thatdestroys or inhibits the growth of otherpathogenic microorganisms and isused in the treatment of external orinternal infections. While some antibiotics are producedby microorganisms, most are nowmanufactured synthetically
Classification of antibiotics : Antibiotics are classified several ways. On the basis of mechanism of action On the basis of spectrum of activity On the basis of mode of action
On the basis of mechanism of action: Cell Wall Synthesis inhibitors:PenicillinsCephalosporinsVancomycinBeta-lactamase InhibitorsPolymycinBacitracin Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Inhibit 30s SubunitAminoglycosides (gentamycin)TetracyclinesInhibit 50s SubunitMacrolidesChloramphenicolClindamycinStreptograminsDNA Synthesis InhibitorsFluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacillin)Metronidazole RNA synthesis InhibitorsRifampin Mycolic Acid synthesisinhibitorsIsoniazid Folic Acid synthesis inhibitorsSulfonamidesTrimethoprim
Misuse of antibiotics : Antibiotic misuse, sometimes calledantibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics, mayproduce serious effects on health. It is a contributing factor to the creation ofmultidrug-resistant bacteria, informallycalled "super bugs" relatively harmlessbacteria can develop resistance tomultiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.
Antibiotics resistance If the concentration of drug requiresto inhibit or kill the microorganism isgreater than normal use then themicroorganism is considered to beresistant to the drug.OR The ability of a microorganism to produce aprotein that disables an antibiotic or preventstransport of the antibiotic into the cell.
Cross-resistance Cross-resistance to a particularantibiotic that often results inresistance to other antibiotics,usually from a similar chemical class,to which the bacteria may not havebeen exposed. Cross-resistance can occur, forexample, to both colistin and polymyxinB or to both clindamycin and lincomycin.
Inappropriate prescription : In an analysis of prescribing practices inteaching hospitals worldwide, more than 40 %of all antimicrobials prescribed were consideredinappropriateAntibiotic resistance comes mainly because of inappropriateor improper use of antibiotics by physicians. Some 150million prescriptions are written annually in theUSA And Of those, 50 million are absolutelyunnecessary or inappropriate”.
Doctor’s are bound to prescribe theantibioticsMr: Don’t forget to take oneof our antibiotics freesample before you leavethe hospital
You get a fever. You have diarrhoea.You catch a cold. Take a couple ofantibiotics (Amoxicillin ,Azithromycin) You should avoid it ,don’t takeantibiotics without prescription.
But many doctors/quacksprescribed antibiotics inviral diseases without test. Viral illness needs timeto heal, antibiotic can nothelp to cure this illness.
Antibiotics side effects:The most common side effects ofantibiotics :DiarrhoeaBloating and indigestionAbdominal painLoss of appetiteBeing sickFeeling sickItchy skin rashCoughinglife-threatening allergic reaction
Unconsciousness of Patient•Without proper directionthe patient take the drug.•They do not maintain thedosage intervals andcomplete the dose.•Patient stop the drug whenfeel better.
What Is The Rules Of Pharmacist The pharmacist should review the previous diseaseshistory of the patient Hypersensitivity reaction of Drug Drug-drug interaction Exact dose and frequency of the drug When the drug should be taken before or after meal Suggest not to stop the antibiotics without completethe course even feel better
My Opinion The doctor must be concern about the diseasewhether it viral or bacterial. They should not prescribed the drug without test orover sure . The pharmacist should also more conscious aboutthe dose ,drug interaction, resistant andhypersensitivity of the drug . The patient should strictly maintain the suggestionof the pharmacist.