SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Antibiotics
Botany Assignment
Submitted by :
ABHISHEK SONI
B.Sc. 1st Sem Microbiology
Submitted to :
Dr . SANGHMITRA
Head of deparment of Botany Govt.
P.G. College Noida
GOVT. P.G. GOLLEGE NOIDA
SEC-39
ANTIBIOTICS
KEY POINTS :
 what is antibiotic
 Classification
 Use
 Resistance and cross -resistance
 Possible Side Effects
 Characteristic of Ideal antibiotic
What is antibiotic
 an antibiotic is a naturally occurring semi – synthetic or synthetic type of agent that destroy o
inhibit growth of microorganism.
 Natural - mainly from soil bacteria & fungal sources.
 Semi- Synthetic - chemically altered chemical compound.
 Synthetic - chemically designed in the lab.
 the term antibiotic first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman .
 1st Antibiotic discovered by scientist alexander Fleming in 1928 is penicillin.
 he was working in his lab and trying to kill deadly bacteria when he noticed Blue mould growing on
dish .
Classification of antibiotics
 Antibiotics are classified in several ways :
1. on the basis of mechanism of action.
2. on the basis of basis of spectrum of antimicrobial activity.
3. on the basis of mode of action.
 Classification : On the basis of mechanism of action
1. Protein synthesis inhibitor -
 inhibit 30s subunit : Aminoglycosides (gentamycin), tetracyclines.
 Inhibit 50s subunit : Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides
1. Cell wall synthesis inhibitor - penicillin and cephalosporins.
2. DNA & Synthesis inhibitor - metronidazole , fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin)
3. RNA Synthesis inhibitor - Rifampin
4. Folic Acid inhibitor - Sulfonamides
On the basis of spectrum of activity
 On the basis of spectrum of activity antibiotics are classified as :
 Board Spectrum Antibiotics : the term board spectrum antibiotics refers to an antibiotic
that’s act against wide range of disease causing bacteria.
 tetracycline
 amoxicillin
 Erythromycin
 short acting antibiotics : use to treat narrow range of disease causing -bacteria
 Azithromycin , Penicillin G
 Clarithromycin.
 Clindamycin
On the basis of mode of action
 On the basis of mode of action antibiotics are classified as :
 Bacteriostatic antibiotics - is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria
from reproducing , while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
 Tetracycline
 chloramphenicol
 Erythromycin
 Bacteriocidal antibiotics- is a biological or chemical agent that kills the bacteria
 Cephalosporin
 Penicillin
 Clotrimazole
Uses
 Pneumonia
 Sepsis
 Meningitis
 Gall infection
 Fungal infection
 Skin infection
 Mucus membrane infection
 Gynecologic infection
 Ent infection
 Diphtheria
 Quinsy
 Scarlet Fever
 Siberian Ulcer
 And in many more disease causing bacteria.
Contraindications
 Hypersensitivity
 Renal Disease
 Hepatic Disease
 Pregnancy (First trimester)
 Blood Dyscrasias.
 CNS disorders
 Chronic Alcholism.
Resistance & Cross Resistance
 Resistance:
 If the concentration of drug requires to inhibit or kill the microorganism is great or less
then the normal use then the microorganism is considered to be resistant to that drug.
 Cross – Resistance :
 Cross resistance to a particular antibiotic that often results in resistance to other antibiotic,
usually from a similar chemical class, to which the bacteria may no have been exposed.
 For – Example
 Clindamycin & Lincomycin.
Possible Side Effects
 Although there is a long list of side effects but some of them are listed below.
 Diarrhea
 Bloating
 Indigestion
 Abdominal pain
 Loss of appetite
 Being sick
 Feeling sick
 Itchy Skin rash
 Coughing
Characteristics of Ideal antibiotics
 An ideal antibiotic should: be broad spectrum in action, i.e, it should act
against a wide variety of different pathogenic microbes. For instance, it should
not only act against different strains of the same bacterial species but also on
different types of bacterial such as Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
 have no toxic or side effect on the host.
 not affect the normal microflora (microbes that normally inhabit the bodies of
healthy organisms) of the host.
 take very less time to start working against pathogens within the body.
THANK YOU !!
PRESENTED BY : ABHISHEK SONI
B.Sc (Biology)
GOVT PG COLLEGE NOIDA SEC -39

More Related Content

Similar to ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS

Antibiotics.pptx
Antibiotics.pptxAntibiotics.pptx
Antibiotics.pptx
berciyalgolda1
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !
ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !
ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !
Aaromal Satheesh
 
Antimicrobial drugs class
Antimicrobial drugs classAntimicrobial drugs class
Antimicrobial drugs class
αямαи мαℓιк
 
Chemotherapy
ChemotherapyChemotherapy
Chemotherapy
Sanjay Joseph
 
Antibiotic
AntibioticAntibiotic
Antibiotic
PoojaVishnoi7
 
Basic Principles of Chemotherapy
Basic Principles of ChemotherapyBasic Principles of Chemotherapy
Basic Principles of Chemotherapy
Vijay Salvekar
 
Lect. 5 Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptx
Lect. 5   Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptxLect. 5   Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptx
Lect. 5 Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptx
MennaMousa4
 
Antimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpanaAntimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpana
Bruno Mmassy
 
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteriaAntimicrobial resistance in bacteria
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
Suprakash Das
 
chemotherapy lecture notes.1.ppt
chemotherapy lecture notes.1.pptchemotherapy lecture notes.1.ppt
chemotherapy lecture notes.1.ppt
AbwoneKenneth
 
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Antimicrobial chemotherapyAntimicrobial chemotherapy
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Abdulghani Ahmed
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
Omprakash Patel
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
Abhilash Mu
 
Antibiotics used in periodontics
Antibiotics used in periodonticsAntibiotics used in periodontics
Antibiotics used in periodontics
shashi chaudhary
 
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptx
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptxAntimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptx
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptx
OsmanHassan35
 
ANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
ANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICSANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
ANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
GITANJALI COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
mohsin12345hjg
 
penicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS) - by shefali jain
penicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS)  - by shefali jainpenicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS)  - by shefali jain
penicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS) - by shefali jain
pradeepjain24
 

Similar to ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS (20)

Antibiotics.pptx
Antibiotics.pptxAntibiotics.pptx
Antibiotics.pptx
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
 
ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !
ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !
ANTIBIOTICS - ALL U WANT U KNW ( FOR MEDICAL& PHARMA STUDENTS) !
 
Antimicrobial drugs class
Antimicrobial drugs classAntimicrobial drugs class
Antimicrobial drugs class
 
Chemotherapy
ChemotherapyChemotherapy
Chemotherapy
 
Antibiotic
AntibioticAntibiotic
Antibiotic
 
Basic Principles of Chemotherapy
Basic Principles of ChemotherapyBasic Principles of Chemotherapy
Basic Principles of Chemotherapy
 
Lect. 5 Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptx
Lect. 5   Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptxLect. 5   Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptx
Lect. 5 Antimicrobial chemotherapy_52ca0249bfddce26414a3ffd81efea2e.pptx
 
Antimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpanaAntimicrobial alpana
Antimicrobial alpana
 
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteriaAntimicrobial resistance in bacteria
Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria
 
chemotherapy lecture notes.1.ppt
chemotherapy lecture notes.1.pptchemotherapy lecture notes.1.ppt
chemotherapy lecture notes.1.ppt
 
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
Antimicrobial chemotherapyAntimicrobial chemotherapy
Antimicrobial chemotherapy
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
 
Antibiotics used in periodontics
Antibiotics used in periodonticsAntibiotics used in periodontics
Antibiotics used in periodontics
 
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptx
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptxAntimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptx
Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.pptx
 
ANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
ANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICSANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
ANTIBIOTICS AND PENICILLIN,B LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
 
Antibiotics
AntibioticsAntibiotics
Antibiotics
 
penicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS) - by shefali jain
penicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS)  - by shefali jainpenicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS)  - by shefali jain
penicillin in dentistry (ANTIBIOTICS) - by shefali jain
 

Recently uploaded

Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Leonel Morgado
 
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selectionThe cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
Carl Bergstrom
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths ForwardImmersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Leonel Morgado
 
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptxPhysiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
fatima132662
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
University of Maribor
 
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdfAJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR
 
Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...
Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...
Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...
Sérgio Sacani
 
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdfSummary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
vadgavevedant86
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdfMending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Selcen Ozturkcan
 
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDSJAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
Sérgio Sacani
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
Areesha Ahmad
 
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titrationCompexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Vandana Devesh Sharma
 
SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆
SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆
SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆
Sérgio Sacani
 
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
lucianamillenium
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Leonel Morgado
 
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
ABHISHEK SONI NIMT INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL AND PARAMEDCIAL SCIENCES , GOVT PG COLLEGE NOIDA
 
Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts
Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coastsSignatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts
Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts
Sérgio Sacani
 
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at  𝐳 = 2.9  wi...Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at  𝐳 = 2.9  wi...
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...
Sérgio Sacani
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
 
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selectionThe cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
 
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart AgricultureAlternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths ForwardImmersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
Immersive Learning That Works: Research Grounding and Paths Forward
 
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptxPhysiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
 
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdfAJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
 
Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...
Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...
Evidence of Jet Activity from the Secondary Black Hole in the OJ 287 Binary S...
 
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdfSummary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
 
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdfMending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
Mending Clothing to Support Sustainable Fashion_CIMaR 2024.pdf
 
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDSJAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
 
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titrationCompexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
 
SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆
SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆
SDSS1335+0728: The awakening of a ∼ 106M⊙ black hole⋆
 
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
2001_Book_HumanChromosomes - Genéticapdf
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
 
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
MICROBIAL INTERACTION PPT/ MICROBIAL INTERACTION AND THEIR TYPES // PLANT MIC...
 
Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts
Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coastsSignatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts
Signatures of wave erosion in Titan’s coasts
 
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at  𝐳 = 2.9  wi...Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at  𝐳 = 2.9  wi...
Discovery of An Apparent Red, High-Velocity Type Ia Supernova at 𝐳 = 2.9 wi...
 

ABHISHEK ANTIBIOTICS PPT MICROBIOLOGY // USES OF ANTIOBIOTICS TYPES OF ANTIBIOTICS

  • 1. Antibiotics Botany Assignment Submitted by : ABHISHEK SONI B.Sc. 1st Sem Microbiology Submitted to : Dr . SANGHMITRA Head of deparment of Botany Govt. P.G. College Noida GOVT. P.G. GOLLEGE NOIDA SEC-39
  • 2. ANTIBIOTICS KEY POINTS :  what is antibiotic  Classification  Use  Resistance and cross -resistance  Possible Side Effects  Characteristic of Ideal antibiotic
  • 3. What is antibiotic  an antibiotic is a naturally occurring semi – synthetic or synthetic type of agent that destroy o inhibit growth of microorganism.  Natural - mainly from soil bacteria & fungal sources.  Semi- Synthetic - chemically altered chemical compound.  Synthetic - chemically designed in the lab.  the term antibiotic first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman .  1st Antibiotic discovered by scientist alexander Fleming in 1928 is penicillin.  he was working in his lab and trying to kill deadly bacteria when he noticed Blue mould growing on dish .
  • 4. Classification of antibiotics  Antibiotics are classified in several ways : 1. on the basis of mechanism of action. 2. on the basis of basis of spectrum of antimicrobial activity. 3. on the basis of mode of action.  Classification : On the basis of mechanism of action 1. Protein synthesis inhibitor -  inhibit 30s subunit : Aminoglycosides (gentamycin), tetracyclines.  Inhibit 50s subunit : Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides 1. Cell wall synthesis inhibitor - penicillin and cephalosporins. 2. DNA & Synthesis inhibitor - metronidazole , fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin) 3. RNA Synthesis inhibitor - Rifampin 4. Folic Acid inhibitor - Sulfonamides
  • 5. On the basis of spectrum of activity  On the basis of spectrum of activity antibiotics are classified as :  Board Spectrum Antibiotics : the term board spectrum antibiotics refers to an antibiotic that’s act against wide range of disease causing bacteria.  tetracycline  amoxicillin  Erythromycin  short acting antibiotics : use to treat narrow range of disease causing -bacteria  Azithromycin , Penicillin G  Clarithromycin.  Clindamycin
  • 6. On the basis of mode of action  On the basis of mode of action antibiotics are classified as :  Bacteriostatic antibiotics - is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing , while not necessarily killing them otherwise.  Tetracycline  chloramphenicol  Erythromycin  Bacteriocidal antibiotics- is a biological or chemical agent that kills the bacteria  Cephalosporin  Penicillin  Clotrimazole
  • 7. Uses  Pneumonia  Sepsis  Meningitis  Gall infection  Fungal infection  Skin infection  Mucus membrane infection  Gynecologic infection  Ent infection  Diphtheria  Quinsy  Scarlet Fever  Siberian Ulcer  And in many more disease causing bacteria.
  • 8. Contraindications  Hypersensitivity  Renal Disease  Hepatic Disease  Pregnancy (First trimester)  Blood Dyscrasias.  CNS disorders  Chronic Alcholism.
  • 9. Resistance & Cross Resistance  Resistance:  If the concentration of drug requires to inhibit or kill the microorganism is great or less then the normal use then the microorganism is considered to be resistant to that drug.  Cross – Resistance :  Cross resistance to a particular antibiotic that often results in resistance to other antibiotic, usually from a similar chemical class, to which the bacteria may no have been exposed.  For – Example  Clindamycin & Lincomycin.
  • 10. Possible Side Effects  Although there is a long list of side effects but some of them are listed below.  Diarrhea  Bloating  Indigestion  Abdominal pain  Loss of appetite  Being sick  Feeling sick  Itchy Skin rash  Coughing
  • 11. Characteristics of Ideal antibiotics  An ideal antibiotic should: be broad spectrum in action, i.e, it should act against a wide variety of different pathogenic microbes. For instance, it should not only act against different strains of the same bacterial species but also on different types of bacterial such as Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.  have no toxic or side effect on the host.  not affect the normal microflora (microbes that normally inhabit the bodies of healthy organisms) of the host.  take very less time to start working against pathogens within the body.
  • 12. THANK YOU !! PRESENTED BY : ABHISHEK SONI B.Sc (Biology) GOVT PG COLLEGE NOIDA SEC -39