CTD Weekly Workshop: Alternatives to Lecture

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Alternatives to Lecture
Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu

30 October 2013

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CTD Weekly Workshop: Alternatives to Lecture

  1. 1. What do you notice? What do you wonder? 1 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-NC-SA
  2. 2. slides and resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/fall-2013-weekly-workshops/ CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: ALTERNATIVES TO LECTURE Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, October 30, 2013 12:00 – 12:50 pm Center Hall, Room 316
  3. 3. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn [1], p. 14) Instructors must draw out students’ pre-existing understandings. 3 Alternatives to Lecture Instruction must be student-centered.
  4. 4. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn [1], p. 16) These are characteristics of expertize 4 Alternatives to Lecture Instructors need to give students opportunities to be more expert-like.
  5. 5. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn [1], p. 18) Metacognition: that voice in your head that checks if you understand 5 Alternatives to Lecture Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive
  6. 6. Constructivist theory of learning Students need to construct their own understanding of the concepts, where  each student assimilates new material into his/her own framework of initial understanding and preconception  each student confronts their (mis)understanding of the concepts A traditional, one-way lecture doesn’t give students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge, practice a skill or receive timely, formative feedback. 6 Alternatives to Lecture
  7. 7. traditional lecture 7 Alternatives to Lecture student-centered instruction
  8. 8. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 8 Alternatives to Lecture
  9. 9. Clicker Question The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. Question credit: Bill Wood 9 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  10. 10. Typical Episode of Peer Instruction 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” 4. After that “peer instruction”, the students vote again and the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. 10 How People Learn
  11. 11. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. 11 How People Learn
  12. 12. Effective peer instruction requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion 4. resolving the misconceptions 12 before class during class Alternatives to Lecture
  13. 13. To learn more about peer instruction Upcoming CTD Teaching and Learning Workshop: Nov 13 Writing Good Clicker Questions: A good episode of peer instruction requires a good question. In this session, we’ll see a variety of questions and contrast good vs. bad questions, that you can adapt to your discipline. To register, look for the Fall 2013 Teaching and Learning Workshops at ctd.ucsd.edu 13 How People Learn
  14. 14. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 14 Alternatives to Lecture
  15. 15. Chemistry Day 4 by pennstatenews on flickr CC-BY-NC 15 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  16. 16. In-class demonstrations 1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah! 2. Students    don’t know where to look don’t know when to look, miss “the moment” don’t recognize the significance of the event amongst too many distractions To engage students and focus their attention on the key event, get students to make a prediction (using clickers, for example) 16 Alternatives to Lecture
  17. 17. Clicker question A ball is rolling around the inside of a circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. B C D A E P Which path does the ball follow? 17 Alternatives to Lecture (Mazur)
  18. 18. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [2] By making a prediction, each student  cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”)  knows when to look (can anticipate phenomenon)  knows where to look (sees phenomenon occur)  gets immediate feedback about his/her understanding of the concept  is prepared for your explanation  (don’t be afraid to mess with their heads – inclined table example) 18 Alternatives to Lecture
  19. 19. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 19 Alternatives to Lecture
  20. 20. Showing video in class There are times when a video is the perfect resource. Archimedes’ Principle In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo (Paul Hewitt video) (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain) 20 Alternatives to Lecture
  21. 21. Videos in class Unlike you, the students do not  select the video instructor does this  check it contains key events before class  anticipate key events instructor does this unconsciously,  recognize key events the “curse” of expertise  interpret key events This is what you want to do in class!  relate key events to Anticipate & recognize are pre-requisites. class concepts 21 Alternatives to Lecture
  22. 22. Videos: implications for instructors  Coach the students how to watch the video like an expert: As you watch this video, try to… watch for when the A starts to B. count how often the C does D. watch the needles on the scales as water drains.  Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.) That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help the students get prepared for that discussion. 22 Alternatives to Lecture
  23. 23. Showing video in biology class 23 Alternatives to Lecture
  24. 24. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 24 Alternatives to Lecture
  25. 25. What do you notice? What do you wonder? 25 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-NC-SA
  26. 26. Start teaching before the bell rings Students arrive, ready to engage with you, your content:  Project a picture related to today’s lesson  Add prompts: “What do you notice? What do you wonder?” [3]  Spend first few minutes leading a discussion:    every student can contribute you learn their pre-existing knowledge activates concepts in their memories  Don’t let their enthusiasm slip away! 26 Alternatives to Lecture
  27. 27. Is Lecture Dead? No! There is still a time and place for lecture. You can lecture (for 10-15 minutes) when the students are prepared to learn  the alt-to-lecture activities have activated the concepts in their memories  they’ve tried, failed, received feedback, tried again and are waiting for confirmation [4]  they’re prepared to intellectually appreciate your expertise you’re about to share with them 27 Alternatives to Lecture
  28. 28. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions To enhance reading quizzes students learning and whiteboards retention, some instruction must worksheets be interactive and student-centered. discussions videos That’s how people learn. 28 Alternatives to Lecture
  29. 29. References 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Get the full story of interactive lecture demos (ILDs) at serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html 3. Read more about “What do you notice? What do you wonder” at ctd.ucsd.edu/2013/08/you-dont-have-to-waitfor-the-clock-to-strike-to-start-teaching/ 4. Bain, K (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 29 Alternatives to Lecture
  30. 30. slides and resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/fall-2013-weekly-workshops/ CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: ALTERNATIVES TO LECTURE Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, October 30, 2013 12:00 – 12:50 pm Center Hall, Room 316

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