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What do you notice? What do you wonder?

1
Archimedes Bath
collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
(16th Century carving, Wikim...
Week 8:
Alternatives to Lecture
The College Classroom
November 19 and 21, 2013
Key Finding 1
3

Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about
how the world works. If their initial understand...
Key Finding 2
4

To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) under...
Key Finding 3
5

A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning b...
Constructivist theory of learning
6

Students need to construct their own understanding of
the concepts, where
 each stud...
Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class [7]
Experimental Section
7

Control Section

 before class

 befor...
Improved Learning in a LargeEnrollment Physics Class [7]
8

Remember: Experimental section instructors LD and ES had no
te...
9

traditional lecture
collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

#tccucsd

student-centered instruction
Alternatives to Lecture
10

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
What do you notice? What do you wonder?

11
Archimedes Bath
collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
(16th Century carving, Wiki...
Start teaching before the bell rings
Students arrive, ready to engage with you, your content:
 Project a picture related ...
Alternatives to Lecture
13

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
In-class demonstrations
14

1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks
a switch, “Taa-daaah!
2. Students
...
Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [3]
15

To engage students and focus their attention on the key
event, get students to mak...
Clicker question
16

A ball is rolling around
the inside of a circular
track. The ball
leaves the track
at point P.

B

C
...
Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [3]
17

After the prediction, each student
 cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?...
Alternatives to Lecture
18

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
What do you see?
19

A) old lady
B) young woman
 If you’re studying human
behavior, let your students
generate authentic ...
Alternatives to Lecture
20

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
Flipped class model
21

students prepare
at home

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

#tccucsd

reading quiz (online
or in class to...
Alternatives to Lecture
22

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
Whiteboards = practice
23

Use whiteboards to give your students practice
analyzing summarizing deriving illustrating
...
Alternatives to Lecture
24

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
Gen-Ed astronomy class
25

Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure the
students are properly prepared:
The state (...
In-class worksheets
26

 carefully-designed sequence of questions guide
students through the exploration of a concept
 f...
In-class worksheet assessment
27

 don’t “go over” the worksheet


that only encourages students to
sit and wait for you...
Clicker question
28

Astronomers have discovered massive gas giant planets like
Jupiter orbiting companion stars closer th...
Alternatives to Lecture
29

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
Discussions
30






students share their understanding, opinions, ideas
students hear other students’ ideas, viewpoin...
Discussions: Implications for instructors
31

 ensure students come to class prepared to contribute
to the discussion


...
Alternatives to Lecture
32

What do you notice/wonder?
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys o...
Archimedes’ Principle
33

In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy
and Archimedes’ Principle.
http://tinyur...
Opinion: Videos in class
34

In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt video
A) is engaging
B) is entertaining
C) is interactive
D)...
Videos in class
35

Unlike you, the students do not
 select the video
instructor does this
 check it contains key events...
Videos: implications for instructors
36

 Coach the students how to watch the video like an
expert:
As you watch this vid...
Veritasium (Derek Muller)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg
37

As you watch the
video, notice how
Derek talks to...
Is Lecture Dead?
No! There is still a time and place for lecture. You can
lecture (for 10-15 minutes) when the students ar...
Week 9:
First Day of Class
The College Classroom
March 6, 2013
References
40

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience,
and Scho...
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The College Classroom Week 8: Alternatives to Lecture

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The College Classroom
collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Peter Newbury
Fall 2013

Published in: Education, Technology
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The College Classroom Week 8: Alternatives to Lecture

  1. 1. What do you notice? What do you wonder? 1 Archimedes Bath collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd (16th Century carving, Wikimedia Commons)
  2. 2. Week 8: Alternatives to Lecture The College Classroom November 19 and 21, 2013
  3. 3. Key Finding 1 3 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions (How People Learn [1], p. 14) outside of the classroom. Instructors must draw out students’ pre-existing understandings. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd Instruction must be student-centered.
  4. 4. Key Finding 2 4 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn [1], p. 16) These are characteristics of expertize collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd Instructors need to give students opportunities to be more expert-like.
  5. 5. Key Finding 3 5 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn [1], p. 18) Metacognition: that voice in your head that checks if you understand collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive
  6. 6. Constructivist theory of learning 6 Students need to construct their own understanding of the concepts, where  each student assimilates new material into his/her own framework of initial understanding and preconception  each student confronts his/her (mis)understanding of the concepts A traditional, one-way lecture doesn’t give students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge, practice a skill or receive timely, formative feedback. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  7. 7. Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class [7] Experimental Section 7 Control Section  before class  before class  3-4 pg reading  in class  PPT slides  0–5 summative clicker questions (not peer instruction)   3-4 pg reading online reading quiz  in class  mix of peer instruction, instructor feedback, worksheets, demonstrations 0 4 peer instruction instructor feedback worksheets demonstration collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
  8. 8. Improved Learning in a LargeEnrollment Physics Class [7] 8 Remember: Experimental section instructors LD and ES had no teaching experience but significant pedagogical content knowledge – knowledge about how people learn physics. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  9. 9. 9 traditional lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd student-centered instruction
  10. 10. Alternatives to Lecture 10 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  11. 11. What do you notice? What do you wonder? 11 Archimedes Bath collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd (16th Century carving, Wikimedia Commons)
  12. 12. Start teaching before the bell rings Students arrive, ready to engage with you, your content:  Project a picture related to today’s lesson  Add prompts: “What do you notice? What do you wonder?” [2]  Spend first few minutes leading a discussion:    every student can contribute you learn their pre-existing knowledge activates concepts in their memories  Don’t let their enthusiasm slip away! 12 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  13. 13. Alternatives to Lecture 13 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  14. 14. In-class demonstrations 14 1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah! 2. Students    don’t know where to look don’t know when to look, miss “the moment” don’t recognize the significance of the event amongst too many distractions collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  15. 15. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [3] 15 To engage students and focus their attention on the key event, get students to make a prediction (using clickers, for example) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  16. 16. Clicker question 16 A ball is rolling around the inside of a circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. B C D A E P Which path does the ball follow? collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd (Mazur)
  17. 17. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [3] 17 After the prediction, each student  cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”)  knows where to look (can anticipate phenomenon)  knows when to look (sees phenomenon occur)  gets immediate feedback about his/her understanding of the concept  is prepared for your explanation  (don’t be afraid to mess with their heads – inclined table example) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  18. 18. Alternatives to Lecture 18 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  19. 19. What do you see? 19 A) old lady B) young woman  If you’re studying human behavior, let your students generate authentic data  Clickers can be set to “anonymous” collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  20. 20. Alternatives to Lecture 20 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  21. 21. Flipped class model 21 students prepare at home collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd reading quiz (online or in class to check knowledge and reward effort) students are prepared to engage in natural, critical, learning tasks [4]
  22. 22. Alternatives to Lecture 22 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  23. 23. Whiteboards = practice 23 Use whiteboards to give your students practice analyzing summarizing deriving illustrating computing drafting brainstorming presenting Tips:  groups of 3-4 with 1 pen per person  encourage students to show their thinking, not just the final analysis  train students to listen to each other’s presentations  see [5, 6] for resources collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  24. 24. Alternatives to Lecture 24 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  25. 25. Gen-Ed astronomy class 25 Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure the students are properly prepared: The state (or phase) of matter – solid, liquid or gas – depends on temperature. Rocky (“terrestrial”) planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars Gaseous (“Jovian”) planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Units in astronomy  temperature measured in Kelvin  distance measured in astronomical units (AU): 1 AU = distance from Earth to Sun collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  26. 26. In-class worksheets 26  carefully-designed sequence of questions guide students through the exploration of a concept  first few questions may be trivial – checks students read intro paragraph, gives them confidence  give formative feedback along the way  most effective when done collaboratively (group reaches consensus before answering)  long, evidence-based history via “Washington Tutorials” and “Lecture Tutorials for introductory astronomy” (interactive activities in Prather et al. [2] is primarily lecture-tutorials + peer instruction) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  27. 27. In-class worksheet assessment 27  don’t “go over” the worksheet  that only encourages students to sit and wait for your solutions  don’t post solutions later   again, encourages non-participation students bring last year’s sol’ns to class force students to self-assess their answers: metacognition  good alternative: ask a clicker question(s)  if students get the question right, they can be confident they successfully completed the worksheet collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  28. 28. Clicker question 28 Astronomers have discovered massive gas giant planets like Jupiter orbiting companion stars closer than 0.7 AU (about the distance of Venus’s orbit). Why don’t astronomers believe that these gas giant planets originally formed at these locations? A) The planets’ gravity would have been too large to form that close to the star. B) The temperature in the early solar nebula was too high at these distances. C) Their orbital periods are too long for them to be located that close to their companion stars. D) A young star’s solar wind would have blown the planets farther away. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd (Prather et al., [4])
  29. 29. Alternatives to Lecture 29 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  30. 30. Discussions 30     students share their understanding, opinions, ideas students hear other students’ ideas, viewpoints students practice communicating like experts students get timely feedback from peers and instructor collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  31. 31. Discussions: Implications for instructors 31  ensure students come to class prepared to contribute to the discussion  pre-readings that students want to complete (marks?)  must orchestrate activity so EVERY student speaks (no just enthusiastic volunteers)  talking stick, whiffle balls, pass the duck, popsicle sticks, pass around an artefact  build in time/tasks for listening, getting feedback from peers and instructor collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  32. 32. Alternatives to Lecture 32 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions student-centered instruction videos collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  33. 33. Archimedes’ Principle 33 In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo (Paul Hewitt video) (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  34. 34. Opinion: Videos in class 34 In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt video A) is engaging B) is entertaining C) is interactive D) stimulates deep thinking collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  35. 35. Videos in class 35 Unlike you, the students do not  select the video instructor does this  check it contains key events before class  anticipate key events instructor does this unconsciously,  recognize key events the “curse” of expertise  interpret key events This is what you want to discuss  relate key events to in class! Anticipate & recognize are pre-requisites. class concepts collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  36. 36. Videos: implications for instructors 36  Coach the students how to watch the video like an expert: As you watch this video, try to… watch for when the A starts to B. count how often the C does D. watch the needles on the scales as water drains.  Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.) That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help the students get prepared for that discussion. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  37. 37. Veritasium (Derek Muller) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg 37 As you watch the video, notice how Derek talks to the people he interviews. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  38. 38. Is Lecture Dead? No! There is still a time and place for lecture. You can lecture (for 10-15 minutes) when the students are prepared to learn  the alt-to-lecture activities have activated the concepts in their memories  they’ve tried, failed, received feedback, tried again and are waiting for confirmation [4]  they’re prepared to intellectually appreciate your expertise you’re about to share with them 38 Alternatives to Lecture
  39. 39. Week 9: First Day of Class The College Classroom March 6, 2013
  40. 40. References 40 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Get the full story of ILDs at serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html Prather, E.E., Slater, T.F., Adams, J.P., & Brissenden, G. (2007). Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy. (2e). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Addison-Wesley. Bain, K. (2004) What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Noschese, F. The $2 Interactive Whiteboard. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from fnoschese.wordpress.com/2010/08/06/the-2-interactive-whiteboard/ Seddon, S. Biological Whiteboarding - The use of mini whiteboards in my Biology class. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from totallylearnedas.wordpress.com/2013/11/18/biological-whiteboarding/ Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C.E. (2011). Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class. Science 332, 862 – 864. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd

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