CTD Weekly Workshop: How People Learn

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How (you can help) People Learn
Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu

23 October 2013

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CTD Weekly Workshop: How People Learn

  1. 1. What do you notice? :-) by victor_nuno on flickr CC-BY-NC What do you wonder?
  2. 2. slides and resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/fall-2013-weekly-workshops/ CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, October 23, 2013 12:00 – 12:50 pm Center Hall, Room 316
  3. 3. 3 How People Learn
  4. 4. Survey Which of these do you associate with a typical university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning 4 How People Learn
  5. 5. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC) 5 How People Learn
  6. 6. Let’s have a learning experience… 6 How People Learn
  7. 7. Here is an important number system. Please learn it. 1= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 7 4= 6= 9= How People Learn
  8. 8. Test What is this number? 8 How People Learn
  9. 9. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning. 9 How People Learn
  10. 10. New Number System Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” code: 1 5 6 7 How People Learn 3 4 10 2 8 9
  11. 11. Test What is this number? 11 How People Learn
  12. 12. Constructivist theory of learning New learning is built on and from existing knowledge. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections that are made with previous existing memories. Creating memories (aka learning) involves having neurons fire and neurons link up in networks or patterns. 12 How People Learn (Images by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC)
  13. 13. How People Learn National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853 13 How People Learn
  14. 14. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 14 How People Learn
  15. 15. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 15 How People Learn
  16. 16. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 16 How People Learn
  17. 17. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([3], [4]) meta cognition 17 How People Learn
  18. 18. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 18 How People Learn
  19. 19. Please break into groups of 3-4... Each set of cards has  3 Key Findings  3 Implications for Teaching  3 Designing Classroom Environments TASK: Sort your cards into 3 groups of 3 cards by matching the Implication for Teaching and Classroom Environment to each Key Finding: Designing Classroom Environment 19 How People Learn
  20. 20. 20 How People Learn
  21. 21. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 21 How People Learn
  22. 22. Implications for Teaching 1 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.) 22 How People Learn
  23. 23. Transmissionist Please memorize this code: Constructivist 2= 5= 3= 6= How People Learn 5 6 8 9 7= 8= 9= unsupported, unfamiliar content 23 3 7 4= 2 4 1= 1 built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board)
  24. 24. Classroom Environments 1 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p 23.) 24 How People Learn
  25. 25. Learning requires interaction [2] 25 How People Learn
  26. 26. Learning requires interaction [2] Learning gain: 100% 0.50 0 26 How People Learn % of class time NOT lecturing pre-test post-test
  27. 27. Learning requires interaction [2] 1 3 27 2 4 How People Learn
  28. 28. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 28 How People Learn
  29. 29. 29 How People Learn
  30. 30. Implications for Teaching 2 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. (How People Learn, p 20.) Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 24.) 30 How People Learn
  31. 31. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract, confuse, impede  lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload 31 How People Learn
  32. 32. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 32 How People Learn
  33. 33. Implications for Teaching 3 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject (How People Learn, p 21.) areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and (How People Learn, p 24.) students — are essential. Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive: an internal dialogue about their own thinking 33 How People Learn
  34. 34. traditional lecture 34 How People Learn student-centered instruction
  35. 35. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos 35 How People Learn student-centered instruction
  36. 36. Clicker question Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC) 36 How People Learn
  37. 37. Typical Episode of Peer Instruction (PI) 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” 4. After that “peer instruction”, the students vote again and the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. 37 How People Learn
  38. 38. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. 38 How People Learn
  39. 39. To learn more about peer instruction Upcoming CTD Teaching and Learning Workshop: Nov 13 Writing Good Clicker Questions: A good episode of peer instruction requires a good question. In this session, we’ll see a variety of questions and contrast good vs bad questions, that you can adapt to your discipline. To register, look for the Fall 2013 Teaching and Learning Workshops at ctd.ucsd.edu 39 How People Learn
  40. 40. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. 40 How People Learn
  41. 41. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain. 41 How People Learn
  42. 42. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain. BE LESS HELPFUL 42 How People Learn
  43. 43. If in doubt, ask yourself… Who is doing the work, you or the students? 43 How People Learn
  44. 44. slides and resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/fall-2013-weekly-workshops/ CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, October 23, 2013 12:00 – 12:50 pm Center Hall, Room 316
  45. 45. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 45 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brame, C. (2013) Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinkingabout-metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. How People Learn

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