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CTD Sp14 Weekly Workshop: How People Learn

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Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu
April 9, 2014

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CTD Sp14 Weekly Workshop: How People Learn

1. 1. Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca #ctducsd ctd.ucsd.edu resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/weekly-workshops-spring-2014/ April 9, 2014 12:00 – 12:50 pm NSB Auditorium Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 3.0 License. CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOP: HOW PEOPLE LEARN
2. 2. How (you can help) People Learn2
3. 3. Survey How (you can help) People Learn3 Which of these do you associate with a typical college or university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning
4. 4. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model How (you can help) People Learn4 (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
5. 5. Let’s have a learning experience… 5 How (you can help) People Learn
6. 6. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. How (you can help) People Learn6 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 =
7. 7. Test How (you can help) People Learn7 What is this number?
8. 8. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure 8 How (you can help) People Learn We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning.
9. 9. New Number System = tic-tac-toe code How (you can help) People Learn9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10. 10. Test How (you can help) People Learn10 What is this number?
11. 11. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections made with your existing memories. Constructivist Theory of Learning How (you can help) People Learn11 New learning is based on knowledge you already have. (Image by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC) learning is done by individuals
12. 12. How People Learn How (you can help) People Learn12 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853
13. 13. Key Finding 1 How (you can help) People Learn13 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.)
14. 14. Key Finding 2 14 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) How (you can help) People Learn
15. 15. Key Finding 3 15 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn
16. 16. Aside: metacognition How (you can help) People Learn16 Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([2], [3]) cognitionmeta
17. 17. Key Finding 3 17 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn
18. 18. In groups of 3 – 4... How (you can help) People Learn18 Match an Implication for Teaching and Designing Classroom Environments to each Key Finding Key Finding 2 Implication for Teaching Implication for Teaching Implication for Teaching Designing Classroom Environments
19. 19. 19 How (you can help) People Learn
20. 20. Key Finding 1 How (you can help) People Learn20 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.)
21. 21. Implications for Teaching 1 How (you can help) People Learn21 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.)
22. 22. How (you can help) People Learn22 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board) Transmissionist Constructivist
23. 23. Classroom Environments 1 How (you can help) People Learn23 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p. 23)
24. 24. Learning requires interaction [4] How (you can help) People Learn24 1 2 3 4
25. 25. Key Finding 2 25 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. How (you can help) People Learn (How People Learn, p 16.)
26. 26. How (you can help) People Learn 26
27. 27. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You How (you can help) People Learn27 Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract, confuse, hinder  lack automization (“muscle memory”) resulting in cognitive overload
28. 28. Implications for Teaching 2 How (you can help) People Learn28 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 20.) (How People Learn, p 24.)
29. 29. Key Finding 3 29 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn
30. 30. Implications for Teaching 3 How (you can help) People Learn30 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential. Instructors need to give students opportunities to practice being metacognitive: having an internal dialogue about their own thinking (How People Learn, p 21.) (How People Learn, p 24.)
31. 31. How (you can help) People Learn31 student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
32. 32. Evidence-Based Instructional Strategies (EBIS) How (you can help) People Learn32 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets simulations discussions videos student-centered instruction
33. 33. Introductory Chemistry How (you can help) People Learn33 Today, we’ll be learning about changes of state. Remember, there are 3 states (also called “phases”) of matter:  solid  liquid  gas
34. 34. Clicker question How (you can help) People Learn34 Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)
35. 35. Chemistry learning outcomes How (you can help) People Learn35 Students will be able to  name all 6 changes of state  translate back and forth between technical (“melt”) and plain English (“solid into liquid”) Imagine… misconception?
36. 36. Typical episode of peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn36 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor prompts students, “Turn to your neighbors and convince them you’re right.” 4. After the peer-to-peer discussion, [the students vote again and] the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong.
37. 37. In effective peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn37  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students (don’t) know and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts
38. 38. Upcoming Weekly Workshops at the CTD: To register, look for the Spring 2014 Teaching and Learning Weekly Workshops at ctd.ucsd.edu To learn more about peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn38 May 7 Peer Instruction 1: Writing Good Peer Instruction (“Clicker”) Questions A good episode of peer instruction requires a good question. In this session, we’ll see a variety of questions and contrast good vs bad questions, that you can adapt to your discipline May 14 Peer Instruction 2: Best Practices for Running Peer Instruction with Clickers In this session, we’ll discuss best practices for choreographing an episode of peer instruction in your class including how to pose the question, when to open and close the poll, how many votes, and how to get the most out of the class-wide discussion.
39. 39. How People Learn 39 Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students won’t learn just by listening to the instructor explain. BE LESS HELPFUL How (you can help) People Learn
40. 40. References How (you can help) People Learn40 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 3. Brame, C. (2013). Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about- metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. 4. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330.