Preparing to Teach 3: Supporting expert-like thinking

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Summer Graduate Teaching Scholars Program
sgts.ucsd.edu
University of Californina, San Diego
Peter Newbury
5/9/2014

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Preparing to Teach 3: Supporting expert-like thinking

  1. 1. Summer Graduate Teaching Scholars Preparing toTeach 3: Getting your students to think more like experts via  2 minute pause  peer instruction May 13 and 15 1sgts.ucsd.edu
  2. 2. “What the best college teachers do” “More than anything else, the best teachers try to create a natural critical learning environment:  natural because students encounter skills, habits, attitudes, and information they are trying to learn embedded in questions and tasks they find fascinating— authentic tasks that arouse curiosity and become intrinsically interesting  critical because students learn to think critically, to reason from evidence, to examine the quality of their reasoning using a variety of intellectual standards, to make improvements while thinking, and to ask probing and insightful questions about the thinking of other people.” (Bain (2004), p. 99)sgts.ucsd.edu 2
  3. 3. What is expertise? “To develop competence in an area of inquiry, student must (a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application” (How People Learn, 2000) sgts.ucsd.edu 3
  4. 4. sgts.ucsd.edu 4
  5. 5. sgts.ucsd.edu 5 knowledge
  6. 6. sgts.ucsd.edu 6 knowledge framework
  7. 7. sgts.ucsd.edu 7 knowledge framework retrieval
  8. 8. Thinking in more expert-like ways requires  modeling by the expert (that’s you!)  deliberate practice by each student: 1. Approach each critical task with an explicit goal of getting much better at it. 2. As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and why you’re doing it the way your are. 3. After the task, get feedback on your performance from multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. 4. Continually build mental models of your situation – your industry, your company, your career. Enlarge the models to encompass more factors. 5. Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. Occasional practice does not work. (from Tip Sheet: Perfect Practice (Colvin, 2006)) sgts.ucsd.edu 8
  9. 9. Supporting deliberate practice How much time? Aim for 10 min per hour? sgts.ucsd.edu 9 Stop to let students think and discuss Pose a question for students to think about and discuss Give choices to direct the students’ conversations 2-min pause 2-min pause Pro peer instruction
  10. 10. 2-minute pause Every 15-20 minutes of your lecture, stop talking and invite the students to take 2 minutes to:  review their notes  consult with neighbors to fill in missing points  check with neighbors if anything is confusing  formulate a question(s) that will clear up confusion or fill in a gap When conversations dies down (wait longer than 2 minutes, if necessary), lead a brief class-wide discussion to answer questions, resolve confusion. sgts.ucsd.edu 10
  11. 11. Engineering Professor CAPEs Quarter Enrollment Recommend class Recommend instructor SP10 25 91.7 % 58.3 % SP11 47 89.5 % 73.7 % FA11 123 91.7 % 56.3 % SP13 105 94.6 % 83.8 % sgts.ucsd.edu 11 started using 2-minute pause
  12. 12. 2-minute pause (Pro version) Provide a question in case they  don’t have anything to talk about  don’t know how to have an expert-like conversion  summarize material just covered “What do you think would have happened if they ran the experiment with adults instead of children?”  motivate upcoming material “How do you think this will change when we apply it in 3 dimensions instead of 2?” sgts.ucsd.edu 12
  13. 13. Typical episode of peer instruction 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers,ABCD cards sgts.ucsd.edu 13 3. The instructor prompts students,“Turn to your neighbors and convince them you’re right.” 4. After discussion, students vote again. 5. Instructor leads a class-wide discussion about why right answer(s) is right and wrong answers are wrong. 3. Instructor prompts students, “Explain to your neighbor why you made that choice.” 4. After discussion, instructor leads a class-wide discussion about each choice Analytical skills (typically one right answer) Argumentation skills (every choice can be defended)
  14. 14. Peer instruction with clickers How many of these are characteristics of a good peer instruction question?  assesses if students understand content just covered  prepares students to engage with upcoming content  checks if students are prepared for class  opportunity for expert-like thinking and talking A) 2 of them B) 3 of them C) all of them sgts.ucsd.edu 14
  15. 15. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their (novice) language  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students (don’t) know and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. sgts.ucsd.edu 15 students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts
  16. 16. Effective peer instruction requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark and support student discussion 4. leading a class-wide discussion to clarify the concept, resolve the misconception 5. reflecting on the question: note curious things you overheard, how they voted, etc. so next year’s peer instruction will be better sgts.ucsd.edu 16 before class during class after class
  17. 17. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... sgts.ucsd.edu 17 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
  18. 18. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... sgts.ucsd.edu 18 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen The students have not solved concept X. But they’re know X exists and why X is interesting.
  19. 19. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... sgts.ucsd.edu 19 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen Students have had opportunities to try, fail, receive feedback and try again without facing a summative evaluation. [Bain]
  20. 20. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... sgts.ucsd.edu 20 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
  21. 21. sgts.ucsd.edu 21 What makes a good clicker question? clarity Students waste no effort trying to figure out what’s being asked. context Is this topic currently being covered in class? learning outcome Does the question make students do the right things to demonstrate they grasp the concept? distractors What do the “wrong” answers tell you about students’ thinking? difficulty Is the question too easy? too hard? stimulates thoughtful discussion Will the question engage the students and spark thoughtful discussions? Are there openings for you to continue the discussion? (Adapted from Stephanie Chasteen, CU Boulder)
  22. 22. Sample Questions Look through the collection of questions. Some are good, some are not. Try to identify at least one characteristic (clarity, context,…) that makes each question good (or not). sgts.ucsd.edu 22  SamplePIQuestions
  23. 23. Peer instruction helps you teach sgts.ucsd.edu 23 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e
  24. 24. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps you teach sgts.ucsd.edu 24 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Do they care about this? Are they ready for the next topic? What DO they care about, anyway? What do they already know?
  25. 25. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l eDid they notice key idea X? Where are they in the activity? Peer instruction helps you teach sgts.ucsd.edu 25 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Are they getting it? Do I need to intervene?
  26. 26. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l eHow did I do? Did they get it? Peer instruction helps you teach sgts.ucsd.edu 26 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Can I move to the next topic? Did that activity work?

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