FREE SPEECHAND FAIR USE INTHE ACADEMICENVIRONMENTPat Aufderheide
OVERVIEW• Copyright and Fair Use• The Best Practices Approach• Academics and Fair Use• Code of Best Practices in Fair  Use...
THE PURPOSEOF COPYRIGHT
ONE PURPOSE :TO PROMOTE THECREATION OF CULTURE
BY: • Rewarding creators with   limited monopoly • Encouraging new makers   to use existing culture
BIGGEST BALANCINGFEATURE:       FAIR USE  legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material−under     some circumstances
09/30/09
“FOUR FACTORS”• Reason for the use• Kind of work used• Amount used• Effect on the market
GOOD NEWS…      •   Judges love balancing          features      •   Supreme Court: fair          use protects free       ...
JUDGES ASK:• Is your use “transformative”?  (i.e., use for new purpose,  context, audience, insight)• Did you use the appr...
“TRANSFORM?”• E.g., use of works for  scholarly study• Use of works for teaching• Use for exhibits• Etc.
PLUS…Custom and practice ofindividual creativecommunities…...especially when well-documented
BESTPRACTICESCODES
COMMUNITIESINTERPRET FAIR USE:  • Documentary filmmakers  • Scholars  • Media literacy teachers  • Online video  • Dance c...
DOCUMENTARY CODE
RESULTS:• TV programmers air films• New kinds of films• All insurers of errors and  omissions insurance now  accept fair u...
BEST PRACTICES,NOT GUIDELINES• Principles, not rules• Limitations, not bans• Reasoning, not rote
WHYFAIR USEMATTERS TOLIBRARIANS
FAIR USE ENABLESMISSION• Mission to serve knowledge  past, present, future• Need to access copyrighted  work• Digital  inn...
BUT…• Insecurity and hesitation=staff  costs, mission deformed• Fair use would help, but is  under-used• Risk aversion sub...
THE CODE OFBEST PRACTICESIN FAIR USEFOR ACADEMICAND RESEARCHLIBRARIES
CREATED BYLIBRARIANSDeep deliberation by 90librarians from 64 inst’ns innine 4-hour discussions.Review by diverse panel of...
NEW INPUT FORRISK MANAGEMENT• Put legal risks into  perspective, “mission risk”• Consider views of librarians• Grounding f...
Fair Use Appliesin 8 CommonSituations
ONE:Digital access to teachingmaterials for students andprofs-limitations!-enhancements
TWO: Exhibits, both physical & virtual …with limitations …and enhancements!
THREE:Digitizing to preserveat-risk items…when you can’t buy it(plus more limitations &enhancements).
12/17/09
FOUR:Digital collections ofarchives and specialcollections(+ limitations andenhancements)
FIVE:Access to research andteaching materials fordisabled users(+ limitations andenhancements)
12/17/09
SIX: Institutional repositories, e.g., dissertations, multimedia research (+ limitations and enhancements)
SEVEN:Create digital databases for“non-consumptive uses”(digitizing, indexing forsearch)(+ limitations andenhancements, of...
12/17/09
EIGHT:Making topically-basedcollections of Web-basedmaterial(+ limitations andenhancements)
12/17/09
FAIR USE: Practice Makes Practice
MOREINFORMATION
The code and much    more (videos!Presentations! FAQs!)• www.arl.org/fairuse• Centerforsocialmedia.org/fair-  use
Please feel free to share thispresentation in its entirety.For excerpting, kindlyemploythe principles of fair use.
THANK YOU!The Andrew W. MellonFoundationResearch librarianseverywhere
CONTACT INFO  Brandon Butler  brandon@arl.org  Peter Jaszi  pjaszi@wcl.american.edu
Arl Code Librarians USC
Arl Code Librarians USC
Arl Code Librarians USC
Arl Code Librarians USC
Arl Code Librarians USC
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  • Arl Code Librarians USC

    1. 1. FREE SPEECHAND FAIR USE INTHE ACADEMICENVIRONMENTPat Aufderheide
    2. 2. OVERVIEW• Copyright and Fair Use• The Best Practices Approach• Academics and Fair Use• Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries
    3. 3. THE PURPOSEOF COPYRIGHT
    4. 4. ONE PURPOSE :TO PROMOTE THECREATION OF CULTURE
    5. 5. BY: • Rewarding creators with limited monopoly • Encouraging new makers to use existing culture
    6. 6. BIGGEST BALANCINGFEATURE: FAIR USE legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material−under some circumstances
    7. 7. 09/30/09
    8. 8. “FOUR FACTORS”• Reason for the use• Kind of work used• Amount used• Effect on the market
    9. 9. GOOD NEWS… • Judges love balancing features • Supreme Court: fair use protects free speech • Fair use judicial interpretation shifts greatly since 1990
    10. 10. JUDGES ASK:• Is your use “transformative”? (i.e., use for new purpose, context, audience, insight)• Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use?
    11. 11. “TRANSFORM?”• E.g., use of works for scholarly study• Use of works for teaching• Use for exhibits• Etc.
    12. 12. PLUS…Custom and practice ofindividual creativecommunities…...especially when well-documented
    13. 13. BESTPRACTICESCODES
    14. 14. COMMUNITIESINTERPRET FAIR USE: • Documentary filmmakers • Scholars • Media literacy teachers • Online video • Dance collections • OpenCourseWare
    15. 15. DOCUMENTARY CODE
    16. 16. RESULTS:• TV programmers air films• New kinds of films• All insurers of errors and omissions insurance now accept fair use claims• Lawyers use the Statement to build their practices
    17. 17. BEST PRACTICES,NOT GUIDELINES• Principles, not rules• Limitations, not bans• Reasoning, not rote
    18. 18. WHYFAIR USEMATTERS TOLIBRARIANS
    19. 19. FAIR USE ENABLESMISSION• Mission to serve knowledge past, present, future• Need to access copyrighted work• Digital innovation/obsolescence
    20. 20. BUT…• Insecurity and hesitation=staff costs, mission deformed• Fair use would help, but is under-used• Risk aversion substituted for fair use analysis
    21. 21. THE CODE OFBEST PRACTICESIN FAIR USEFOR ACADEMICAND RESEARCHLIBRARIES
    22. 22. CREATED BYLIBRARIANSDeep deliberation by 90librarians from 64 inst’ns innine 4-hour discussions.Review by diverse panel oflegal experts.
    23. 23. NEW INPUT FORRISK MANAGEMENT• Put legal risks into perspective, “mission risk”• Consider views of librarians• Grounding for solidarity
    24. 24. Fair Use Appliesin 8 CommonSituations
    25. 25. ONE:Digital access to teachingmaterials for students andprofs-limitations!-enhancements
    26. 26. TWO: Exhibits, both physical & virtual …with limitations …and enhancements!
    27. 27. THREE:Digitizing to preserveat-risk items…when you can’t buy it(plus more limitations &enhancements).
    28. 28. 12/17/09
    29. 29. FOUR:Digital collections ofarchives and specialcollections(+ limitations andenhancements)
    30. 30. FIVE:Access to research andteaching materials fordisabled users(+ limitations andenhancements)
    31. 31. 12/17/09
    32. 32. SIX: Institutional repositories, e.g., dissertations, multimedia research (+ limitations and enhancements)
    33. 33. SEVEN:Create digital databases for“non-consumptive uses”(digitizing, indexing forsearch)(+ limitations andenhancements, of course)
    34. 34. 12/17/09
    35. 35. EIGHT:Making topically-basedcollections of Web-basedmaterial(+ limitations andenhancements)
    36. 36. 12/17/09
    37. 37. FAIR USE: Practice Makes Practice
    38. 38. MOREINFORMATION
    39. 39. The code and much more (videos!Presentations! FAQs!)• www.arl.org/fairuse• Centerforsocialmedia.org/fair- use
    40. 40. Please feel free to share thispresentation in its entirety.For excerpting, kindlyemploythe principles of fair use.
    41. 41. THANK YOU!The Andrew W. MellonFoundationResearch librarianseverywhere
    42. 42. CONTACT INFO Brandon Butler brandon@arl.org Peter Jaszi pjaszi@wcl.american.edu

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