Fair use higher ed

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A description of the code of best practuic

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Fair use higher ed

  1. 1. FAIRUSEIN TEACHING& LIBRARIES:THEBESTPRACTICESMODEL<br />Pat Aufderheide <br />Center for Social Media <br />American University <br />
  2. 2. PREFACE<br /><ul><li>I am not a lawyer, and do not offer legal advice in individual cases
  3. 3. This is not about rules, but about reasoning; no shortcuts
  4. 4. It’s not about Sec. 110, educational exemptions or Sec. 108, library exemptions</li></li></ul><li>IT’S ABOUT…<br /><ul><li>How related communities employ fair use;
  5. 5. What you can borrow from them;
  6. 6. And what librarians are doing to help you further.</li></li></ul><li>IT COMES FROM...<br /><ul><li>The Fair Use Project
  7. 7. Five years of work with Washington College of Law
  8. 8. Funded by MacArthur, Rockefeller, and Ford Foundations
  9. 9. Co-principal investigator: Prof. Peter Jaszi (pjaszi@wcl.american.edu) </li></li></ul><li>THEPURPOSEOFCOPYRIGHT<br />
  10. 10. ONE PURPOSE :<br />TOPROMOTETHE CREATION OF CULTURE<br />
  11. 11. By:<br /><ul><li>Rewarding creators with limitedmonopoly
  12. 12. Encouraging new makers to use existing culture</li></li></ul><li>WHY BALANCE? <br /><ul><li>All culture created on existing culture (we used to know that)
  13. 13. The First Amendment (no censorship)</li></li></ul><li>BIGGEST BALANCING FEATURE:<br />FAIR USE <br />legal, unauthorized use of <br />copyrighted material--under <br />some circumstances<br />
  14. 14. HOW WE FORGOT BALANCE:<br /><ul><li>Copyright term extension
  15. 15. Default copyright
  16. 16. Punishing penalties (statutory damages)
  17. 17. Large content holders’ aggressive tactics</li></li></ul><li>
  18. 18. DECADESOF MISINFORMATION<br /><ul><li>Guidelines end up as limiting rules
  19. 19. Corporate mis-education of users
  20. 20. Tyranny of self-appointed experts </li></li></ul><li>GOOD NEWS…<br /><ul><li>Judges love balancing features
  21. 21. Supreme Court upholds term extension because fair use exists
  22. 22. Fair use judicial interpretation has greatly shifted in last 15 years</li></li></ul><li>INTERPRETINGFAIR USE <br />
  23. 23. THE “FOUR FACTORS”<br /><ul><li>Reason for the use
  24. 24. Kind of work used
  25. 25. Amount used
  26. 26. Effect on the market </li></li></ul><li>PLUS…<br />Custom and practice of individual creative communities…<br /> ...especially when well-documented<br />
  27. 27. AND, IN THE LAST 15 YEARS…<br />Judges focus on<br /><ul><li>Transformation
  28. 28. Amount related to transformative purpose</li></li></ul><li>JUDGES ASK:<br /><ul><li>Did you transform the use?
  29. 29. Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use?</li></li></ul><li>FEAR…<br /><ul><li>Will I get it wrong?
  30. 30. Will I get sued?
  31. 31. Will my boss/general counsel client get angry? </li></li></ul><li>BEST PRACTICES <br />
  32. 32. EDUCATION<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of the law
  33. 33. Awareness of problem
  34. 34. Articulation of consensus around fair use </li></li></ul><li>COMMUNITIESINTERPRETFAIRUSE:<br /><ul><li>Documentary filmmakers
  35. 35. Scholars
  36. 36. Media literacy teachers
  37. 37. Online video
  38. 38. Dance collections
  39. 39. OpenCourseWare</li></li></ul><li>DOCUMENTARY<br />
  40. 40. RESULTS:<br /><ul><li>TV programmers air films
  41. 41. New kinds of films
  42. 42. All insurers of errors and omissions insurance now accept fair use claims
  43. 43. Lawyers use the Statement to build their practices</li></li></ul><li>MEDIALITERACY TEACHERS<br />
  44. 44. MEDIA LITERACY CATEGORIES<br /><ul><li>Teaching with copyrighted material
  45. 45. Using copyrighted material in curriculum materials
  46. 46. Circulating curriculum materials with copyrighted material in them
  47. 47. Student use of copyrighted materials in their work
  48. 48. Circulating student work </li></li></ul><li>ONLINE VIDEO<br />
  49. 49. ONLINE VIDEO CODE<br /><ul><li>Comment/critique
  50. 50. Illustration/example
  51. 51. Accidentally/incidentally
  52. 52. Preserve/recall
  53. 53. Discuss
  54. 54. Collage</li></li></ul><li>DANCE COLLECTIONS<br />
  55. 55. PRESERVATION<br />Transferring holdings to new formats (fair use better than section 108)<br />
  56. 56. EXHIBITION<br />Using holdings in public displays/exhibits <br />Capturing copyrighted material in recorded presentations (e.g. podcast of the event)<br />
  57. 57. RESEARCH<br />For academic study, including “digital ILL” (better than section 110)<br />Allowing public access to digitized materials on a website <br />
  58. 58. OPEN COURSEWARE<br />
  59. 59. SITUATIONS<br /><ul><li>Incidental use
  60. 60. Critique and analysis
  61. 61. Illustration
  62. 62. Demonstration</li></ul>(sound familiar?)<br />
  63. 63. AND WHAT ABOUT E-RESERVES?<br />Links are better than digital reproduction BUT...<br />non-text/hard-to-find material may justify fair use.<br />
  64. 64. TEXACO DECISION (1992)<br />OK to reproduce copies of articles received from a corporate service for Texaco employees? <br />
  65. 65. NO, because…<br />Not transformative.<br />
  66. 66. TRANSFORMATIVE FUNCTIONS? <br /><ul><li>Assembling research for a project
  67. 67. Online research-discussion site
  68. 68. Others?</li></li></ul><li>Coming Soon: Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Research Libraries<br />
  69. 69. Categories:<br /><ul><li>Scholarship
  70. 70. Teaching
  71. 71. Preservation
  72. 72. Exhibition
  73. 73. Disabilities</li></li></ul><li>AVOID PRE-EMPTION<br /><ul><li>Many contracts with providers pre-empt fair use </li></ul>— Scope of use<br />— Exclusion of fair use <br /><ul><li>Often, contracts can be tailored
  74. 74. Read the fine print! </li></li></ul><li>Resources<br /><ul><li>Our new book, Reclaiming Fair Use
  75. 75. Center for Social Media web resources
  76. 76. Codes
  77. 77. Teaching tools
  78. 78. Videos</li></ul>12/17/09<br />
  79. 79. FAIR USE:<br />Practice <br />Makes <br />Practice<br />
  80. 80. Please feel free to share this<br />presentationinitsentirety.<br />For excerpting, kindly employ<br />theprinciplesoffairuse.<br />
  81. 81. THANK YOU!<br />Prof. Peter Jaszi<br />MacArthur, Rockefeller, Mellon and Ford Foundations <br />
  82. 82. CONTACT INFO<br />Pat Aufderheide <br />Center for Social Media<br />School of Communication <br />American University <br />Washington, DC <br />paufder@american.edu<br />202-885-2069<br />

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