Proposal/ Problem SolvingENG 111, College Composition I
Proposal/Problem Solving• A problem is a situation, condition, attitude, person, place, or thing that is a “source of perplexity, distress, or vexation.”• A problem can be global or local.• *a proposal paper and a problem solving paper are the same thing.
Key Features• A well-defined problem• A recommended solution• Convincing argument for proposed solution• Anticipate questions• A call to action• An appropriate tone
Techniques for Problem Solving• Analyze the political, social, cultural context.• Identify and understand the audience.• Demonstrate that a problem exists.• Propose a solution or solutions.• Persuade the audience that the proposal will work; address objections.• Support the problem and solutions with evidence.
Demonstrate that a Problem Exists• Identify the problem.• Define it.• Indicate whom it affects.• Provide evidence that it exists. – Expert opinion – Examples – Statistics – Personal Experience
Proposing a Solution and Convincing the Audience• Make specific recommendations.• Provide reasons.• Provide evidence: statistics, examples, expert opinion, personal experience.• Examine feasibility and drawbacks.
Problem Solving: Choosing a Subject• Narrow the topic.• Identify your audience.
Collecting• Identify and Focus on the Specific Problem: – Who? – What? – When? – Where? – Why?• Prove that the Problem Exists.
Collecting• Demonstrate That the Problem Needs a Solution. – Discuss the effects of the problem, both short-term and long-term.
Collecting• Discover Possible Solutions. – Explain what caused the problem – Ask “What if?” to explore solutions.
Collecting• Evaluate Possible Solutions. – Apply the “If . . . then” test. – Does the proposal: • Solve the problem? • Meet certain criteria, such as cost- effectiveness, practicality, ethicality, legality? • Avoid creating new problems?
Collecting• Convince the Audience. – Provide reasons. – Provide evidence: statistics, expert opinion, examples, personal experience.
Collecting• Answer Possible Objections to the Proposal. – List drawbacks. – List responses.
Collecting• List Possible Steps for Implementation.• Call for Action.
Collecting• Provide Evidence by Reading and Investigating. – Interview participants or authorities. – Use a questionnaire or survey. – Find articles or web sites addressing the problem.
Shaping the Problem Solution• Pick a genre: – Problem Solving Pattern Introduce the Problem Identify and Demonstrate the Problem Provide Solutions Address Possible Objections/Drawbacks Implement the Plan/Call to Action
Shaping the Problem Solution• Pick a genre: – Point-by-Point Pattern Introduce the Problem Identify and Demonstrate the Problem Point #1: solution, evidence, objections, feasibility Point #2: solution, evidence, objections, feasibility Point #3: solution, evidence, objections, feasibility Implementation and Call to Action
Shaping the Problem Solution• Pick a genre: – Alternative Pattern Introduce the Problem Identify and Demonstrate the Problem Solution #1: Why It’s Not Satisfactory Solution #2: Why It’s Not Satisfactory Solution #3: Why It Works Best + Evidence, Objections, Feasibility Implementation and Call to Action
Shaping the Problem Solution• Pick a genre: – Step-by-Step Pattern Introduce the Problem Identify and Demonstrate the Problem Plan for Implementing the Solution Step #1: Reasons and evidence Step #2: Reasons and evidence Step #3: Reasons and evidence Call for Action
Citing Sources• Mention sources in the text.• List sources at the end under References.• Follow the APA format on the tutorial or in the text.• NOTE: At least three outside sources are required.
APA Format• In-text citation gets the author’s last name (if none, the title) and the copyright year. (Jones, 2005). However, if it is a direct quote, the page number is added with p. or pp. (Jones, 2005, p. 1).• If using the author’s name in the sentence, the copyright date comes behind his name:According to Jones (2005), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. (paraphrase)According to Jones (2005), “APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners” (p. 1).
APA Continued• The website address is included behind the phrase: Retrieved from http://www.etc. (do not use the web address in the in-text)• Quotations are not used for minor titles in the Reference list, but are used in the in-text citation. (Still do not use all of the title if it is long, just the beginning.)
APA Continued• In the WC is now called References and the copyright switches to be behind the initial of the author’s name. Titles only get the first words capitalized unless there is a colon or it is a professional journal.
Example of Works Cited Works CitedJones, E. (2005). The challenge facing our nation. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved on November 19, 2010 from: http://www.billandmelindagatesfoundation.com(Use double-spacing and hanging indent)
Example of Internal Citation“This is a direct quote” (Jones, 2005, p. 1).This is a paraphrase (Jones, 2005).(Use the author’s last name or the title and the copyright year; use a comma if there is a page number and put p. for one page and pp. for more than one. The end punctuation goes after the citation.)
Revising• Before posting your paper: – Gain some distance and objectivity. – Look at the Guidelines for Revision.• Post the paper in Group File Exchange.• After completing the group forum: – Read the suggestions from other group members. – Make the necessary changes. – Send the second draft to the instructor.