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Inventing arguments 6 7


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Inventing arguments 6 7

  1. 1. Inventing Arguments Chapter 6 & 7 College Comp II
  2. 2. Arguing Definitions <ul><li>When arguing definitions, the writer is asking “What is it?” </li></ul><ul><li>It requires defining something in a way that brings out its profound significance for how one might live and think. </li></ul><ul><li>They allow people to make other arguments. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Arguing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>There needs to be a common understanding of certain concepts; otherwise, decisions about public affairs are nearly impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>Each discipline defines things differently; each has its own definitions of its own work; each creates its own new knowledge. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Writing About Definitions <ul><li>Starting Places: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on a specific situation or thing—and ask whether it falls within or outside of a definition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popular culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reading from the chapter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Writing About Definitions Cont. <ul><ul><li>Focus on a term—and argue for a specific definition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What term do people misunderstand or misapply? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the most important debate currently being waged in your community? What is the definition at the root of the debate? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the most important cultural or national debate? What is the underlying misunderstood aspect? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><ul><li>Focus on an unstated definitional argument that lurks in a common practice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the visual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does the appearance and design of a course textbook define college? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does a particular fashion trend define gender or sexual orientation? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for visual arguments about definitions where you work. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Analyzing the situation—peel apart the idea under discussion and see how the specifics match up with an accepted definition. </li></ul><ul><li>If starting with a specific situation, inspect the particulars. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>If your starting place is a specific situation or think, consider the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the particular qualities of the situation or thing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do those particular qualifiers match up with an agreed-upon definition? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>If your starting place is a general term, consider the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What specific behaviors, attitudes, values, policies, or qualities does the term involve? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What specific qualities differentiate it from other like thinks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is its opposite? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under what conditions does it thrive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under what conditions does it suffer? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Entering argument—bridge an understanding between common conceptions of the topic and their own unique ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researching Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodical databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Inventing a Thesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argue that the particular situation, event, show, etc., does or does not match a definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argue that a common term is often misapplied or entirely misunderstood. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Inventing Support—find support for your opinions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogical reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals to value </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should I give my definition? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should I counter opposing definitions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a concession or qualifier have to go in every argument? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many other definitions should I include? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With all these different support strategies, how do I know where they should go? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Audience and Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informality/formality </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Writing Definitions Cont. <ul><li>Revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor comment </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Arguing Causes <ul><li>When arguing causes, the writer is asking “Why did this happen?” and understanding the sophisticated causal arguments that go along with the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is looking for assertions about causes, and different perspectives will generate different answers to this question. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Arguing Causes Cont. <ul><li>It is looking beyond the obvious causes to those lurking on the fringes or that might be overlooked. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Writing About Causes <ul><li>Starting Places: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>local event or situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particular behavior or trend in college life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>particular political phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>popular culture phenomenon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situation in your academic discipline or career field </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Analyzing the Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to lay some intellectual groundwork before diving into the topic. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the most direct causes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What economic or business conditions may have figured in? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What attitudes, fears, or values may have initiated it or indirectly supported it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What people, organizations, or institution were directly or indirectly involved? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Might some basic human need or fundamental physical principle have played a part? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Entering Argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look in periodical databases such as EBSCOhost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look on Internet search engines such as Google. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If there is no clear debate, you are responsible for making it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If there are two sides, need to address the supposed causes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t pick something that has been over-analyzed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Inventing a Thesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asserting a single cause—some have preconditions, so clear them and find a single cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asserting multiple causes—point to several causes instead of one when there are too many influencing factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcending common wisdom—some things people will hold as widely held views but writer can open up new logic about the topic. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Inventing Support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What line of reasoning must I establish and how do I support? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What historical or current events or figures illustrate something about the topic? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What local authority might help reveal something about the topic? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the logical causes of the topic on the community—or broader society? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What hidden, or indirect, factors can I describe? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The thesis can be implied, but usually given as the last sentence in the introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure how to use scientific research, but don’t overwhelm readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there are multiple causes, develop each in its own paragraph. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the reader’s journey through the argument. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Audience and Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice and sentence variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice and pronouns (stick to third person) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use statements like “I think,” “I feel,” “I believe,” etc. as these are not needed since the reader knows the writer is presenting what he/she thinks, feels, or believes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Writing About Causes Cont. <ul><li>Revision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor review </li></ul></ul>