Essay writing exclusive to the lecture room's fans

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Essay writing exclusive to the lecture room's fans

  1. 1. From Confusion to Conclusion How to Write a First-Class Essay Vlad Mackevic www.thelectureroom.co.uk
  2. 2. www.TheLectureRoom.co.uk
  3. 3. Objectives How to answer essay and exam questions? How to come up with an essay topic? How to be critical? How to structure your essay? How to research efficiently? How to become a better writer?
  4. 4. School  University
  5. 5. Overwhelmed!
  6. 6. What Earns You Points? Answering the Question (!) Structure Style and language Research and Analysis References Formatting and Presentation
  7. 7. Set Topic vs. Free Topic !!! ???
  8. 8. Set Topic
  9. 9. The Assignment Question1.The Object of the Study2.The Context of the Study3.The Method of the Study
  10. 10. Modern organisations oftenreplace the traditionalhierarchical structure with amore ‘horizontal’ team structure.Select two motivation theoriesfrom the field of organisationalpsychology and discuss how theycan be applied in a team-basedorganisation.
  11. 11. Action VerbsModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  12. 12. ObjectModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  13. 13. ContextModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  14. 14. MethodModern organisations often replacethe traditional hierarchical structurewith a more ‘horizontal’ teamstructure. Select two motivationtheories from the field oforganisational psychology anddiscuss how they can be applied in ateam-based organisation.
  15. 15. Discuss1. It is the case becauseReason AReason BReason C2. On the other hand, it is not the case becauseReason AReason BReason C
  16. 16. Do you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  17. 17. ObjectDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  18. 18. ContextDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  19. 19. MethodDo you agree with Hedley Bull’scomment that the notion of‘international society has alwaysbeen present’ in the worldpolitical system?
  20. 20. What were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  21. 21. ObjectWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  22. 22. ContextWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  23. 23. MethodWhat were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  24. 24. Reasons Internal vs. External Levels: individual, organisation, society, country Not universal, but a good start
  25. 25. Other ‘Action Words’ Compare and contrast (similarities and differences) Advantages and disadvantages (‘Evaluate’) Outline (describe the main features) Enumerate (‘number’, list something)
  26. 26. Always define the object of your study.Show your understanding of the key termsSometimes also define the context
  27. 27. What about Exams?
  28. 28. Exams are just likeessays, but you’ve got much less time
  29. 29. Exam Tips Research Practise Object, Context, Method Prepare an outline Manage your time
  30. 30. Creating a Free Topic Research report Essay (2nd year onwards) Dissertation
  31. 31. Keep It Simple and NarrowThe rise of the Asian Tigers(economic power in the East)
  32. 32. Taiwan Reasons Impact Singapore The rise of the Asian Tigers (economic power in the East) International relations Hong KongSouth Korea Consequences Economic performance
  33. 33. What were the reasons for theeconomic miracle of South Koreain the second half of the twentiethcentury?
  34. 34. What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences
  35. 35. What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences• Not Taiwan, Singapore or Hong Kong
  36. 36. What were the reasons for the economic miracle of South Korea in the second half of the twentieth century?• Not consequences;• Not Taiwan, Singapore or Hong Kong• Not any other time
  37. 37. StructureIntroduction (10-15%) Main Body (70-80%) Conclusion (10-15%)
  38. 38. Structure1.Say what you’re going to say;2.Say it;3.Say what you’ve just said.
  39. 39. Set Topic vs. Free Topic Introduction Main Body Conclusion References
  40. 40. Set Topic vs. Free Topic Introduction  Introduction Main Body  Literature Conclusion Review References  Methodology  Analysis and Discussion  Conclusion  References
  41. 41. Introduction
  42. 42. Introduction Explain what you are writing about Guide your reader Mention the Object, the Context and the Method
  43. 43. Write YourIntroduction at the End
  44. 44. Why? It’s hard You don’t have all the information yet  Theory  Applications of the theory  Arguments of the essay  Outline and structure Write about your most recent actions
  45. 45. Main Body Main arguments Evidence Reading/knowledge References
  46. 46. The Funnel and the Hourglass
  47. 47. Set Topic Free Topic
  48. 48. Broad to Narrow
  49. 49. The Funnel Principle
  50. 50. Link all yourarguments back to the essay question!
  51. 51. Broad to Narrow and Back to Broad
  52. 52. TheHourglassPrinciple
  53. 53. Copy from one, it’s plagiarism; copy from two, it’s research. Wilson Mizner US screenwriter (1876 - 1933)
  54. 54. AssignmentsResearch-Based vs. Library-Based
  55. 55. ResearchPrimary Secondary
  56. 56. Research Wikipedia (ONLY for general knowledge) Not to be included in the list of references References on Wikipedia
  57. 57. Research Textbooks and their chapters (theory) Research articles and conference papers (application of theory in practice)
  58. 58. http://scholar.google.com
  59. 59. Research Websites Serious journalism Email correspondence
  60. 60. Research Tips Relevant – answer the question Research ethics Make notes while you’re reading Carefully note down full references BACK IT UP!
  61. 61. Literature Review
  62. 62. Literature ReviewA critical summary of mainresearch you have found on the subject
  63. 63. Why? Done your reading Know your topicAware of the weaknesses
  64. 64. ‘Passable’ Literature Review Main theories How they were applied Research methods used by others Research design used by others
  65. 65. First-Class Literature Review Why did you choose these theories? How did others obtain their results? Similarities/differences in study design Predict your results An original contribution
  66. 66. Analysis and DiscussionInsanity: doing the same thingover and over again and expectingdifferent results. Albert Einstein (attributed)
  67. 67. Analysis and Discussion What has been found? Why such results? Differences between your research and that of the others Different methods; different participants
  68. 68. LimitationsIn the beginners mind there aremany possibilities, in the expertsthere are few. Shunryu Suzuki
  69. 69. Acknowledge Your Limitations Your lecturer will like it All researchers do it No theory is perfect No dataset is perfect No research method is perfect
  70. 70. Conclusion Mention the topic again Describe methods, data analysed etc. Summarise the findings How your findings correspond to the previous research Only write about your data and your research.
  71. 71. Speak confidently about your own results. Do not make generalisationsabout the world based on your limited data sample.
  72. 72. Referencing
  73. 73. Why Reference? To avoid failing the module Because it’s fair To back up your claims Evidence of extensive reading
  74. 74. Referencing Who wrote it? What is the book/article called? Who published it? Where was it published? When was it published?
  75. 75. http://thelectureroom.co.uk/free-resources-for-s
  76. 76. The Writing Process
  77. 77. No Perfect First Draft
  78. 78. Never Leave Your Sheet Blank
  79. 79. Good Writers Read
  80. 80. Always Carry a Notebook
  81. 81. Linking Words
  82. 82. Do Not Complicate Things
  83. 83. Paragraph
  84. 84. Speak to Your Lecturers!
  85. 85. Facebook.com/thelectureroom1
  86. 86. Facebook.com/howtogetafirstclass
  87. 87. Facebook.com/First.year.counts
  88. 88. The Lecture Room Newsletter Click here to subscribe and get free eBooks: ‘How to Write a CV with Little or No Work Experience’ ‘From Confusion to Conclusion: How to Write a First-Class Essay’ (sample – 4 chapters)
  89. 89. Thank you!

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