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How the Americas Change


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How the Americas Change

  1. 1. How The Americas Change: The Long 19 th Century Pamela Clark History 141
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19 th Century: The United States and Canada <ul><li>After the U.S. won it’s independence from European </li></ul><ul><li>colonial powers, westward expansion doubled the size of </li></ul><ul><li>the territory, which doubled in size again with the purchase from France of the Louisiana Territory in 1803. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of migrants from Asia and Europe came to the Americas to mine for gold during the California Gold Rush of 1849, and provided labor for the railroads, agriculture, and service industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Migrants served to further diversify the populations of the Americas, “and stimulated political, social, and economic development in the western hemisphere.” ( The Americas in the 19 th Century pg.1) </li></ul><ul><li>The War of 1812 between the U.S. and England served as a </li></ul><ul><li>catalyst to ease the ethnic and political divisions of the French and </li></ul><ul><li>British populations in Canada as they formed a united front to stave off U.S. invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the U.S. had greater resources, the Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>triumphed, the U.S. could not invade, and Canada’s population grew due to migrant populations who came to settle there afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada was the only country to reach its independence peacefully through successful negotiations with the British, they formed the British North American Act of 1867, forming “The Dominion of Canada.” ( The Building of American States pg.1) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19 th Century: Latin America <ul><li>During the 19 th century, Latin America experienced intense conflicts and many political and social upheavals. Inexperience in self-government caused newly formed republics to rise and fall, and many bloody civil wars were fought during this time in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Bolivar attempted to unify Latin American countries in order to strengthen their ability to resist foreign invasion. He led many war of independence to this aim, and Colombia, Venezuela, and Equador emerged as countries as a result of these wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Many caudillos, or regional military leaders, such as Juan Manuel de Rosas came into power in Latin America. De Rosas was known as “the Argentine Nero,” for he restored order with tyrannical force. This type of oppressive rule fueled the fires of liberal reform in many Latin American countries. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Mexican-American War, Mexican president Benito Juarez introduced “La Reforma,” a movement to limit the power of the Roman Catholic church and military forces in Mexico. </li></ul>Source: The Building of the American States Latin America: Fragmentation and Political Experimentation pages 1 – 3.
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>The “Little Ice Age” describes a period of climatic change that began in the 14 th Century, and ended in the 19 th Century. </li></ul><ul><li>Although temperatures were only a mere four degrees cooler than they had been during the 13 th Century, this temperature drop caused a severe chain reaction that impacted millions of people, their livestock, and their crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people perished or died of starvation-related diseases resulting from this change in climate in Northern Europe and North America. (Source: The History Channel Documentary, Little Ice Age: Big Chill ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas: The Louisiana Purchase <ul><li>Said to be one of Thomas Jefferson’s greatest presidential achievements, </li></ul><ul><li>the fate of the Louisiana Territory took many surprising twists and turns in </li></ul><ul><li>ownership before becoming ceded to the United States in 1803. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally Jefferson wanted this territory as a place to relocate indigenous </li></ul><ul><li>peoples to further establish American settlement of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Louisiana Territory, originally French, passed from France to Spain, and back to France again as a result of the Seven Years War treaty. It was sold back to France by Spain to help Spain pay off war debts. </li></ul><ul><li>King Carlos II of Spain did not want the U.S. to have access to the Port of New Orleans, which was a major route needed to send American goods down the Mississippi to ocean-going vessels for the purposes of trade and commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s plan to invade the U.S. through the Port of New Orleans was thwarted by severe weather and the native uprising on the French island of Saint Dominique. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: The History Channel Documentary: The Louisiana Purchase, 2003.) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Louisiana Purchase: The Saint Dominique Uprising <ul><li>Known as “the Jewel of France” Saint Dominique accounted for two-thirds of all France’s foreign trade, primarily of sugar. Fifty-thousand slaves were imported there from Africa per year to work on the plantations, and were </li></ul><ul><li>brutally treated by their French owners. </li></ul><ul><li>Toussaint L’Ouverture, “The Black Napoleon” was a former slave who lead the successful slave revolt against Napoleon. The combination of guerilla warfare and Yellow Fever wiped out the majority of Napoleon’s soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe ice storms prevented invasion by Napoleon’s troops through the port of New Orleans, and Napoleon sorely needing funds to fuel other wars, which allowed the negotiations to sell the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: The History Channel Documentary: The Louisiana Purchase, 2003.) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam <ul><li>Although there was no definitive battle to end the Civil War, the battle at Antietam did much to restructure many aspects of the war’s momentum. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It stopped the South’s military impetus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It raised the morale of the Union soldiers and northern citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European countries did not recognize the Confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation would eventually be issued in 1863. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(McPherson) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Civil War: The Battle of Antietam <ul><li>The battle at Antietam is remembered by Union and Confederate </li></ul><ul><li>soldiers alike as the worst battle of the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 6,300 and 6,500 Confederate and Union soldiers died in this battle in September of 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>Photography was used for the first time to record the carnage. In an exhibit held in New York City a month later, citizens viewed what was called “ the terrible reality and earnestness of war.” </li></ul><ul><li>(McPherson p.7) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom: The Quest for British Recognition of the Southern Confederacy <ul><li>James Mason of Virginia worked on behalf of the Confederate states </li></ul><ul><li>to gain British recognition of the Confederacy. (McPherson p. 36) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Francis Adams, U.S. minister to Britain, worked </li></ul><ul><li>“ tirelessly to prevent British recognition of the Confederacy. </li></ul><ul><li>(McPherson p. 39) </li></ul><ul><li>It was the battle at Antietam that caused Britain and French </li></ul><ul><li>governments to suspend recognition of the Confederate states. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom: The Emancipation Proclamation <ul><li>The American Civil War was originally a war about preserving the integrity of the union, and not intended to be a war to end slavery in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass was instrumental in urging the president to turn the “war for Union into a war for freedom.” (McPherson p. 63.) </li></ul><ul><li>President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul><ul><li>would free all slaves in the Southern states, but </li></ul><ul><li>was not signed until 1863, a year later than </li></ul><ul><li>originally intended. (McPherson p.71.) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources <ul><li>Articles Provided for Assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>The Americas in the 19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>The Building of American States </li></ul><ul><li>The Building of the American States </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America: Fragmentation and Political Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>The History Channel Documentary, “ The Louisiana Purchase, 2003 ” </li></ul><ul><li>McPherson, James M. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam . Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. Print </li></ul>