A difficult past


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A difficult past

  1. 1. Ning Site Posting 1 <ul><li>Kelsey Taylor </li></ul><ul><li>History 141 </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>Into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>late 18th and early 19th centuries, almost all the lands of the Western Hemisphere won their independence from European colonial powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the age of independence for the U.S., Canada, and Latin America was a contentious era characterized by continuous mass migration and explosive economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American peoples struggled to build effective states, enjoy economic prosperity and attain cultural cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans entrusted themselves to a federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expansion westward was very rapid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ran into problems with the indigenous people, Mexico, and the republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the end of the Civil War ensured the United States of America would remain politically united </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>Canada: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian independence came gradually, not through war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>originally colonized by trappers and settlers from both Britain and France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>war of 1812 stimulated a sense of unity against an external threat instead of splintering Canada due to ethnic divisions and political differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada developed as a culturally diverse yet politically unified society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin America: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solidarity was impossible to sustain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creole elites pushed aside indigenous peoples and established Euro-American hegemony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>terror was a common tool of the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after the Mexican Revolution, the constitution addressed the concerns of the revolutionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instability and conflict plagued Latin America throughout the nineteenth century </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>14th-19th centuries were known as “the little ice age” </li></ul><ul><li>millions die from coldness </li></ul><ul><li>history’s most recent big hard chill </li></ul><ul><li>1653- in the French Alps, priest set off to try to confront a titanic river of ice-glaciers thought to have been possessed by the devil </li></ul><ul><li>devastated impact on much of the world </li></ul><ul><li>seasons so cold the year was known as the year without a summer </li></ul><ul><li>mystery as to what had caused it </li></ul><ul><li>many scientists believe that this can and will happen again </li></ul><ul><li>climatologists have noted that humans are vulnerable to even the smallest changes </li></ul><ul><li>rioting mobs in all areas of Europe demanded more food form the government because so many crops had been destroyed by the weather </li></ul><ul><li>weather pushed Americans towards the west </li></ul><ul><li>around 1850, the little ice age came to an abrupt end </li></ul><ul><li>global warming might cause another ice age </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>The Louisiana Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>greatest real estate deal in American history- opened the west to expansion </li></ul><ul><li>April 30, 1803- nation doubled in size </li></ul><ul><li>bought for $15 million or 4 cents an acre </li></ul><ul><li>factors that helped the U.S. get the land: court intrigues of the Spanish court, the boundless ego of Napoleon, unexpected ice storms, and the uncertain fate of a small Caribbean island </li></ul><ul><li>economic importance of the Mississippi River drew Americans closer and closer so the planters could ship their goods </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish closed off the lower Mississippi which made the settlers almost revolt against national government and threatened to cede from the Union </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson becomes president and Napoleon Bonaparte becomes leader of France </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>Spain throne is weak and Napoleon looks to trade Louisiana area for a principality in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>French only wanted the area because Haiti was very important (economic reasons) </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson thinks there is a way to negotiate with France and looks for a treaty, not war </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson then communicates to Napoleon that if he takes Louisiana, it will be war </li></ul><ul><li>Haitian slave rebellion marked the beginning of the end for Napoleon </li></ul><ul><li>Congress wants to assemble the militia and take back Louisiana but Jefferson tries one last time for diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Since Napoleon needs funds for his war against Britain, he sells </li></ul><ul><li>made the U.S. a transcontinental nation and a world power </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Chapter 1- The Pendulum of War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan took command of the Army of the Potomac after the Union defeat at Bull Run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McClellan was called the “little Napoleon” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>he graduated second in the West Point class of 1846 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He led the army to union victories that secured control of in between land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He privately expressed contempt for Lincoln and all abolitionists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stepped down after he got sick with typhoid fever, taken over by General Henry W. Halleck </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Chapter 2- Taking off the Kid Gloves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning of the war, Lincoln was only a restorationist, not an abolitionist because he didn’t want to loose support from border states and Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglass called him out saying fighting against slaveholders without fighting against slavery is a half-hearted business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln came to acknowledge this point as the war rolled on and it eventually turned into a war for freedom </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Chapter 3- “The Federals Got a Very Complete Smashing” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederate Army won at Second Manassas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee chose to press his luck while he had it and go try another battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee used his new stronghold in Maryland to propose the south’s independence and separate elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many thought that after this, the Union was hopelessly gone </li></ul></ul>