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How The Americas Changed


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How The Americas Changed

  1. 1. How the Americas Change: The Long 19th Century<br />Kristina Underwood<br />History 141<br />
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19th Century<br />Late 18th- early 19th centuries, independence won from European powers<br />Independence of U.S. Canada and Latin America was exemplified by migration, the economy, civil wars, and conflicts between ethnics, classes, races, and sexes<br />Inspired others to want freedom from major powers while also showing the difficulties that freedom brings<br />By mid-19th century, the new free land controlled most of North America, though very unstable<br />Civil war in 1860’s led to abolition of slavery and the unity of certain states, northern states prevailed<br />U.S. expansion to the west began with the land from Britain and the purchased land from France, from here, Lewis and Clark surveyed and mapped the land resulting in conflict with natives and Mexico<br />
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19th Century<br />Canada-<br />Canadian independence was gained without war, through agreements and led to a weak government of providences<br />Two groups in Canada- British Canadians and French Canadians (French outnumbered British until late 18th century  biases)<br />Many British loyalists came to Canada from the US<br />War of 1812 created unity within Canada<br />Britain feared a Revolution of Canada  allowed hem to govern own affairs, each province had own government <br />Canada grew in to a society that was politically unified<br />Latin America-<br />Latin American lands faced social troubles within their diverse regions<br />Simon Bolivar- region’s rescuer<br />Political system was unstable- went from one constitution to the next<br />Took land from indigenous people for cultivating and ranching <br />Juan Manuel de Rosas- military/political leader that brought order to Argentina<br />La Reforma- limited military and church power in Mexico<br />
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age<br />Seven centuries ago, 14th to 19th century, started at different times around the world, ended around 1850<br />Plummeting temps, climatic shifts, unpredictable, known as year without a summer in America and England, 4 degrees cooler average-> humans are vulnerable to the slightest temp change<br />weather changed dramatically, drenching rains lasted for five years-> crops washed away, bubonic plague (black death), at least 5 major volcanic eruptions in eachcentury, improved farming economy-> live stalk, potato, wars and revolutions, moved American settlers west<br />
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas<br />Louisiana Purchase (1803)-<br />The United State’s (Thomas Jefferson) purchase of 828,800 square miles owned by France<br />Included 15 of today’s states and two provinces of Canada (Doubled the size of the U.S.)<br />Paid eleven and a quarter million and cancelled France’s $3,750,000 debt<br />Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)-<br />ended slavery and established a republic in the French colonyDefining moment for Africans of the New World<br />Blacks who left Saint-Domingue for the United States brought stories and their ideas of abolition<br />
  6. 6. Frontiers of the Americas<br />The North American Frontier:<br />Prince Maximilian-<br />German explorer that found a Botocudos tribe and accounted for details<br />Also collected many plant and insect species that were unknown<br />Karl Bodmer-<br />Swiss painter that traveled with Maximilian and recorded images especially of tribes<br />Maximilian wrote books that included Bodmer’s painting, giving an accurate of the Old West<br />The South American Frontier:<br />Latin America contained much violence in the South<br />Many civil wars throughout the 19thcentury<br />
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Seven Days Battle (June 25- July 1, 1862):<br />Took place during the American Civil War<br />McClellan (Union) vs. Lee (Confederacy)<br />Starting on June 26, the Army of Northern Virginia did most of the attacking during the battle<br />The biggest battle, out of the six, was on June 27 at Gaines’ Mill<br />Casualties 20 thousand Confederates & 16 thousand Federals<br />The 4th of July after the battle was known as the gloomiest day the people have experienced <br />
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)-<br />Ordered by Abraham Lincoln, freedom of slaves<br />Lincoln had a draft of the Proclamation in a desk drawer for two months, he wanted to wait for military improvements (which failed to happen)<br />Instantly freed 50,000 slaves, aimed for 3.1 million our of 4 million<br />Abolitions became a focus of the war<br />Led to the Thirteenth Amendment (December 1865)- abolition of slavery<br />
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863)-<br />Largest amount of casualties of the Civil War Union 23,055 and 28,00 Confederate <br />The Civil War’s turning point, Union win<br />Meade (Union) vs. Lee (Confederacy)<br />Led to Gettysburg Address- Lincoln’s speech when the Soldiers’ National Cemetery was dedicated<br />
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom<br />Abraham Lincoln-<br />16th President of the United States<br />Elected in1860<br />Emancipation Proclamation and the 13th Amendment<br />Gettysburg Address of 1863<br />Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth in 1865, first assassination<br />Ranked as one of the greatest Presidents of the United States<br />