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Assignment 1


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Assignment 1

  1. 1. Theme 1 A Difficult Past How the America’s Changed Jessica Migdal History 141
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>The age of independence for the United States, Canada, and Latin America was a contentious era characterized by continuous mass migration and explosive economic growth but American peoples struggled throughout the nineteenth century to build states and societies that realized their potential in an age of independence. </li></ul><ul><li>The election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860 was the spark that ignited the Civil war between the Northern and Southern states. The first two years of the war ended in stalemate. The war changed character on 1 January 1863, however, when Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, making the abolition of slavery an explicit goal of the war. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>Westward expansion of the United States and the American Civil War pushed Canada toward political autonomy. Fear of U.S. expansion helped stifle internal conflicts among Canadians and prompted Britain to grant independence to Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Mexico experienced a succession of governments, from monarchy to republic to caudillo rule, but it also generated a liberal reform movement. The Mexican-American War caused political turmoil in Mexico and helped the caudillo General Antonio Lopez Santa Ana consolidate his rule. After the defeat and disillusion of the war, however, a liberal reform movement attempted to reshape Mexican society. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>The Little Ice Age was a period of cooling that occurred after a warmer era known as the Medieval Warm Period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>The Little Ice Age brought colder winters to parts of Europe and North America. Farms and villages in the Swiss Alps were destroyed by encroaching glaciers during the mid-17th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Tree ring data from Patagonia show cold episodes between 1270 and 1380 and from 1520 to 1670 </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have tentatively identified these causes of the Little Ice Age: decreased solar activity, increased volcanic activity, altered ocean current flows, the inherent variability of global climate, and reforestation following decreases in the human population. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the US of 828,800 square miles from France's territory of Louisiana in 1803. The U.S. paid $11,250,000 plus cancellation of debts of 3,750,000. This was a vital moment in the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson initiated the purchase by sending Livingston to Paris in 1801, after discovering the transfer of Louisiana from Spain to France under the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. Livingston was authorized to purchase New Orleans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Federalists strongly opposed the purchase, favoring close relations with Britain over closer ties to Napoleon, believing the purchase to be unconstitutional, and concerned that the U.S. had paid a large sum of money just to declare war on Spain. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>Knife duels from the criminal of the borderland between Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, to the southernmost Brazilian state in some ways so much like Uruguay and Argentina had seen such sheer intensity of this violence is shocking, the shock must be ignored in order to see what such scenes meant for the spectators </li></ul><ul><li>Human throats were cut in precisely the same fashion, especially during the civil wars. The guerra gaucha, as it was called, relied on speed and surprise. It was a light-cavalry guerrilla war with no place for prisoners. </li></ul><ul><li>Knife duels became a matter of honor and men had to protect their lives along with their livelyhood. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>About 6,500 Union and Confederate soldiers were killed and wounded by the Maryland village of Sharpsburg on September 17, 1862. This was two time more than the deaths of the World Trade Center. </li></ul><ul><li>A local resident who rode over the battlefield traced the Confederate line by the dead bodies where they fell saying that the line was a mile or so long. </li></ul><ul><li>The most concentrated violence took place on a farm road in the center of the Confederate line. This became known as the Bloody Lane. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The South needed to defend what it already had to win the war. It needed to repel the enemies invasion and wear out the North. </li></ul><ul><li>President Lincoln wished to achieve his war aims of preserving the US as a whole nation. But his armies would have to invade the Confederacy and defeat its armies, conquer and occupy. </li></ul><ul><li>After the defeat at Red Bull President Lincoln called upon General George B. McClellan to take command of the Army of the Potomac. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The army of Northern Virginia was not destroyed at Antietam, like President Lincoln hoped, but they were badly hurt. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the commanders were either killed or wounded, but they did not give up that easily even on retreat. The battle and the Confederate retreat did great things for moral in the Army of the Potomac. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Without slavery the rebellion could never have existed and without slavery it could not continued. </li></ul><ul><li>The battle of Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation had a signal impact abraod. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Englishmen had expected The Confederate to capture Washington and were surprised at their retreat. </li></ul><ul><li>The preliminary Emancipation Proclamation further eroded the Confederacy’ chance for diplomatic recognition. </li></ul>