How the Americas Change: The Long 19th Century By: James Smith III
The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>The United States </li></ul><ul><li>United States had begun to prosper as their nation began to mature. During this time there was a great feeling of going West to expand the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>During the expansion many Native Americans were treated horribly, many were forced to move away from their homes one such event was called the “Trail of Tears”, when many of the Cherokee Indians were forced to move from east to Oklahoma . Many of the Cherokees died during this movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with the movement west there was a rise of slavery and a rise of anti-slavery feeling across the nation. Many northern states began to abolish slavery while many southern states wanted to keep slaves. As the tension rose, the nation erupted into a civil war. </li></ul>
The Americas in the 19th Century <ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The Canada Confederation was formed through a slow process of working with Britain for autonomy and forming difficult unions between the French-Canadians and the British-Canadians. The main reason the nations decided to join forces was so that the United States would not begin to move north into their territory. </li></ul><ul><li>During the War of 1812 many Canadians began to feel unity as the nation helped the British fight off the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederation gained even more freedom when The Civil War broke out in the United States, the British allowed the nation to form its own legislative branch and executive branch, even with all of this the nation was still under British Control. </li></ul>
The Little Ice Age <ul><li>The “little ice age” was a time between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries where many parts of the world had a great drop in temperature and ice glaciers around the world began to grown. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time many cultures around the world went through hard times, some people died of famine while many became poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Although scientists have not agreed on specific time periods and causes, it had major effects on the world and history. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia article Little Ice Age , “ NASA defines the term as a cold period between 1550 AD and 1850 AD and notes three particularly cold intervals: one beginning about 1650, another about 1770, and the last in 1850”. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Little Ice Age, many cultures were affected especially the Vikings. The Vikings who migrated to Greenland during a time when temperatures began to increase, but when the temperature began to fall, they couldn’t adapt fast enough. Between a period between the 1300s and the late 1400s the populations of the Vikings fell drastically from above 70,000 to below 50,000. Their population decrease is credited to a change in their surroundings, with ice becoming more apparent, the land they depended on for crops was going away. </li></ul>
Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>The Louisiana Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>The Louisiana Purchase is considered by many to be the most important thing that the United States ever did. Signed on April 30, 1803 by Robert Levingston, James Monroe and Barbes Marbois, the agreement had the United States pay about $200 + million (modern inflation) to acquire the French Territory of Louisiana which was 820, 000 square miles. </li></ul><ul><li>This purchase was crucial for the United States to continue moving west, today the states of Kansas, Louisiana, Colorado and more are in the former area. </li></ul>
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>U.S. – MEXICAN WAR (1846-1848) </li></ul>REASONS FOR WAR: The United States of America annexed Texas after Mexico threatened war. Mexico had claimed Texas as its territory even though Texas had claimed itself to be independent ten years prior. Deeper Reasons: After the Mexican forces began to move into Texas the United States declared War. The United States also had a vested interest in winning the war since they wanted to control California—at least the northern regions. Outcome: On February 2, 1948 the United States and Mexico agreed to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, this gave the United States “undisputed control” of Texas and the land that would eventually New Mexico, Nevada, and California. The United States also paid the Mexican the equivalent of today’s $461 million dollars .
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Crimean War (1853-1856) </li></ul>Was a war between the Russian Empire and the nations of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia. The war was fought to see who would control the area of the former Ottoman Empire. The war is Considered the first “modern” War. Due to the nations fighting in ways that would have impacts for generations. The war ended with Treaty of Paris 1856, the nations agreed to respect the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire and Russia agreed to stay from the Black Sea.
Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) </li></ul>The Napoleonic Wars were a series of multiple wars fought the Napoleon controlled nation of France against many European countries. During this War the French Empire grew to control Italy, Spain, Germany. The Nation seemed almost unstoppable they reached Russia. When the forces reached Russia, they were not ready for cold winter that the Russians were used to. This defeat led to dissolution of the French Empire and planted the seeds for Spain to lose it grips on its many colonies, it is believed that the end of the war led to British Empire becoming the most powerful nation in the next century.