RACE WAR The Haitian War for Independence (1791-1803) began as a struggle between the privileged white planters and the less privileged affranchis (those of mixed blood) and rapidly became an all-out race war when the third and largest racial element, the pure blacks, ultimately dominated. In 1791 the affranchis sought the liberties given to all citizens by the French Revolution. During the early years of the bloody warfare, some wealthy plantation owners were able to escape from Haiti with their slaves, contributing to the spread of race as a cause for conflict, particularly in neighboring Cuba. Conflicts in other areas of Latin America have also had racial overtones, but none equaled the extremes of the Caribbean experience.
IDEOLOGY OF INDEPENDENCE Latin American wars for independence were an outgrowth of deep-seated political, economic, and social frustrations. Within colonial Latin America a class system existed which exalted the Europeans, gave lesser privileges to the American-born, pure- blooded whites, and repressed all others. Each class of Americans had its own irritants. For the criollos (persons of pure Spanish blood born in the New World), the principal frustration was the lack of political opportunities. The overwhelming majority of political, military, and ecclesiastical appointments went to peninsulares (persons born in Spain, also called godos in Buenos Aires and the Caribbean and gachupines in Mexico).
SEPARATION VERSUS UNION During the colonial era, many administrative entities within the Spanish colonial empire had been held together primarily through their loyalty to the King; he was the glue. Formidable geographical barriers of mountains, jungles, deserts, rivers, and vast distances created isolated pockets of population. Once this European monarch had been forced to abandon his Latin American supporters, a prime issue became whether these vast but sparsely populated colonial entities would become a single nation or whether they would break up-separation versus union. The potential of the young nation breaking apart dominated Argentine politics and military operations for almost six decades (1816-61). Colombia was subjected to nearly eighty years of on-again, off-again civil wars between Centralists and Federalists; between 1828 and 1871 some fifty revolts occurred. Liberal Jose Antonio Gamboa argued at the 1857 constitutional convention that Mexicos second most important problem (the Roman Catholic Church being the first) was the potential of national disintegration because of a lack of identity.
BOUNDARY DISPUTES The poorly defined boundaries of the newly independent nations caused wars. The Spanish kings inadequate knowledge of the geography transferred vast areas from one administrative entity to another in attempts to improve political, social, and economic control. This gave almost every post-independence Spanish-speaking nation some basis to claim lands also cherished by a neighbor. The colonial boundaries in Spanish South America were particularly complex because the continent had been administratively reorganized in 1776, thus further confusing historical ties. Also, the kings of Spain and Portugal were occasionally at war during the colonial era and the same held true for their colonies. Not surprisingly, a golden rule of Latin America power politics became: Relations between nations which share a common border are cool and those which do not are warm. Boundary wars began immediately after the wars of independence and continued throughout the nineteenth century
› Born March 1914› Died April 1998› Receiver of Nobel Prize› Was published when he was 17› Mexican Writer and Diplomat› Dropped out of law school
Ruled as a dictator and took over Argentina ruling from 1829- 1851 Was against social, economic, or polital changes in Argentina Had large armies › Of which killed 20,000 people ‘toughest of the tough’
The U.s. tried to support Argentina › Although Argentina quickly began to lose support from many other countries, they became dependent upon foreign investments because their economy was unreliable Poor country leadership caused these hardships and made it impossible to get new investors.
Among other problems their national gas supplies were quickly depleting The country could not longer be considered a respectable country, and this proves that a country should not be solely dependent upon investments coming in from other countries.
Chile › Is the only South American country that could possibly make it to being a first world country › It uses free trade with America, and china › Kept its distance from continental problems yet makes allies wherever possible › Made a very risky move by voting Michelle Bachelet into presidency. Single mother, and torture victim
Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador › Mayor of Mexico City › Created social and food support programs for elderly Led him to running for president Didn’t win… › López Obrador gained national exposure as an advocate for the rights of indigenous people when in 1996 he appeared on national TV drenched in blood following confrontations with police force for blocking Pemex oil wells to defend the rights of local indigenous people impacted by pollution