The Long 19th Century<br />Ernesto Medina Reyes<br />History 141 – Section 71154<br />
Building American States: TheUnited States<br />In the 19th century the United States built the most powerful empire in the western hemisphere and pushed for continued expansion westward.<br />The United States doubled in size after Britain ceded new lands following the French Revolution.<br />They doubled in size again after purchasing the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803.<br />Manifest Destiny encouraged Americans to claim all lands of North America from the Atlantic to Pacific oceans.<br /> The indigenous peoples of the areas attempted to resist removal from the ancestral lands but were massacred or pushed to swampy lowlands or arid regions so the more fertile lands could be kept by the settlers.<br />The Mexican-American war in 1845 resulted in the defeat of the Mexican Army, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and the purchase of Texas, California and New Mexico.<br />The large territories of the United States began to struggle for unity and became engaged in Civil War in 1861 over the issue of slavery and the election of Abraham Lincoln.<br />Ultimately, the United States created a strong central federal government to oversee the entire country. <br />
Building American States: Canada and Latin America<br />During the 19th century, Canada did not have to fight a war to gain independence. They negotiated with the British and agreed on general principles of autonomy.<br />Although racial divides were prevalent in Canada, they were united by fears of U.S. expansion into the area and used this common-ground to build their government.<br />British North America Act of 1867 created the Dominion of Canada (Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick) and united the country.<br />Latin America had a very difficult time forming a government because of the Latin American elite’s inexperience with self-government.<br />Euro-American settlers followed United States example and began pushing the indigenous people to less fertile or marginal lands. <br />Regional military leaders came to power in the political arena by exploiting the general population’s discord with the current government. Often using terror to rule. Juan Manuel de Rosas united Argentina through a centralized government by quelling rebellion in a bloody fashion.<br />Headed by President Benito Juarez, the Constitution of 1857 attempted to redistribute land to the indigenous people and improve the condition of the masses but failed as most of the land went to large landowners or speculators.<br />
The Little Ice Age in America<br /><ul><li>In the 15th century a dramatic cooling affected the entire globe and was marked by extreme winters and volatile climatic shifts with no predictability. It lasted into the 19th century.
Two feet of snow fell in New England in June and July.
This climate changed the outcome of the American Revolution helping to gain American independence from Europe</li></ul>George Washington’s surprise attack on the British across the partially frozen Delaware River resulted in a win for the Americans and restored confidence in their war.<br />During the Battle of 1812, Jackson led troops to victory in the Battle of New Orleans.<br />
Frontiers of the Americas: The Louisiana Purchase<br />The Louisiana Territory was originally claimed by a French explorer, La Salle, in 1682. In 1762, France gifts the area to Spain as gratitude for their help in the French and Indian War.<br />Americans became interested in the area as New Orleans, the ocean port to the Mississippi rivers, grows in importance. Large amounts of American produce are being transported down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. America, France and Spain all begin to recognize the significance of the area.<br />Napoleon Bonaparte puts pressure on Carlos IV of Spain to swap Louisiana for a territory in Italy and signs the Treaty of San Ildefonso in secret, promising never to give Louisiana to a foreign nation.<br />Thomas Jefferson learns about the treaty and about Napoleon's intentions to mass a French army and secure troops in America. Jefferson decides to negotiate a peaceful solution and sends letters to the French Ambassador at one point indicating that a French presence would require the United States to ally itself with British forces.<br /> At the same time Napoleon was fighting a brutal war in Haiti and losing to the locals guerilla warfare tactics. He redirected troops intended for New Orleans to help his efforts in Saint-Domingue.<br />With renewed wars looming and inn desperate need of money, Napoleon makes an offer to Jefferson to purchase the entire Louisiana territory for a negotiated amount of $15 million funded by a British bank, a price of about 4 cents an acre. <br />
Frontiers of the Americas: North and South America<br />North America<br />Native Americans were beginning to face more and more encounters with European attacks. They were losing their sacred lands and hunting grounds to squatters. <br />Many trading bases existed where Native Americans could trade their goods. <br />Indians lived in tribal/warrior societies battling with each other over territories.<br />South America<br />The 19th century was a time of many wars and was an overall violent era. The life of a soldier and frontiersman included a general indifference towards killing and violence. However, honor was an integral part of the culture.<br />Even Brazil, often seen as a tranquil nation, was overshadowed by extreme violence in small towns and rural areas.<br />Politicians often enforced their rule with their own personal armies and the 19ths century was a time of multiple political upheavals such as in Brazil that flip-flopped from liberal to conservative rule.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:<br />Joseph Hooker<br />Major General “Fighting Joe” Hooker, born 1814, was known as the most aggressive corps commander in the Union army.<br />Commanded a corps in Oak Grove during the Seven Days battles.<br />On September 16, 1862 Hooker’s corps engaged in battle at Antietam against Stonewall Jackson. His troops were the first to rush into battle the next morning in the bloodiest day in the Civil War. <br />He was seen as an inspiration to his men, fighting the battle with a foot wound and overheard as saying “We are through for the night…but tomorrow we fight the battle that will determine the fate of the republic.”<br />In the battle of Antietam, he was able to fight Jackson to a standstill but was ultimately defeated as McClellan did not enter the battle to assist Hooker’s corps until they were complete worn out and facing defeat. <br />
Crossroads of Freedom:<br />Second Battle of Bull Run<br />On August 28, 1862, John Pope’s forces were searching for, and found, Thomas Jackson’s forces at Manassas Junction, better known as Bull Run. They engaged in battle with Pope’s 32,000 men versus Jackson’s 22,000. <br />Miscommunications between Pope and his uncooperative generals as well as misinterpretations of the enemies intentions by Pope himself, led to open flanks on Pope’s troops when Pope launched a full-scale attack on Jackson.<br />Pope’s men suffered high casualties and the Union was forced to retreat across Bull Run. The defeat was humiliating for the Union and caused anger and resentment from the soldiers. <br />The event was evidence that the North was unable to keep obedience and alignment within their command as McClellan had not assisted Pope out of spite in hopes that the General would lose the battle.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:<br />Emancipation Proclamation<br />The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, declared that any Confederate state that did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863 will have their slaves “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”<br />The proclamation only affected the Confederate states so all the border states with slaves were still allowed to keep them.<br />There was little immediate impact on the practice of slavery because Lincoln’s was not in control of the Confederate states with slaves. <br />It served more as a symbolic gesture that changed the war from a attempt to restore the Union to a goal of creating a new nation.<br />This caused much division between the northern army which continued for six months. General McClellan, although he disagreed with the proclamation, reminded his army of it’s obedience to civil authority and that changes in Washington or the government should be decided at the polls.<br />Eventually the proclamation was accepted by the majority of the Union who supported Lincoln in future speeches about the issue.<br />
Crossroads of Freedom:<br />Frederick Douglass<br />Born as a slave, Douglas became a leader of the abolitionist movement and speaker for the African American community.<br />Douglas strongly believed in equality of all people including Native Americans and women.<br />He was critical of Lincoln when the President first took office because Lincoln refused to address the issue of slavery in fear of losing support of the Democratic border states.<br />In 1862, Douglass urged Lincoln to focus the war efforts as an end to slavery because the slavery in the south meant a large labor force that gave the Confederates an advantage over the Union.<br />After the release of the Emancipation Proclamation, Douglass declared “We shout for joy that we live to record this righteous decree.”<br />
Sources<br />The America’s in the 19th Century<br />The Building of American States<br />The Canadian Dominion: Independence Without War<br />Latin America: Fragmentation and Political Experimentation<br />Documentary Film: The Little Ice Age<br />Documentary Film: The Louisiana Purchase<br />Documentary Film: The North American Frontier<br />McPherson, James M. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam. New York: Oxford UP, 2002. Print<br />Frederick Douglass - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass<br />Joseph Hooker - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Hooker<br />