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Techniques used for separation in proteomics

overview of techniques and processes used in proteomics

Techniques used for separation in proteomics

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Techniques used for separation
in proteomics
-Dr. Nilesh Chandra
Objectives
• Introduction
• Challenges in proteomic studies
• Some commonly used techniques for
separation of proteins from complex biological
mixtures.
• Comparative Summary
Introduction
• Proteomics describes the study and
characterization of complete set of proteins
present in a cell, organ, or organism at a given
time.
• Proteomic approaches can be used for:
– proteome profiling
– comparative expression analysis of two or more
protein samples
– the localization and identification of posttranslational
modifications
– the study of protein–protein interactions
Challenges in proteomics
• In spite of new technologies, analysis of complex
biological mixtures, ability to quantify separated
protein species, sufficient sensitivity for proteins of low
abundance, quantification over a wide dynamic range,
ability to analyze protein complexes, and high
throughput applications is not yet fulfilled.
• Biomarker discovery remains a very challenging task
due to the complexity of the samples and the wide
dynamic range of protein concentrations.
• Processing and analysis of proteomics data is a very
complex multistep process.
Techniques in use
• Two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)
• Fluorescence 2D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-
DIGE)
• Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag (ICAT)
• Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture
(SILAC)
• Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation
(iTRAQ)
• Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology
(MudPIT)
• Protein Microarray
• Mass spectrometry
• Bioinformatics for proteomics
2D Electrophoresis
• Entails the separation of complex protein
mixtures by:
– molecular charge in the first dimension.
– mass in the second dimension.
• Provides several types of information
simultaneously, including:
– molecular weight
– pI
– Quantity
– possible posttranslational modifications

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Techniques used for separation in proteomics

  • 1. Techniques used for separation in proteomics -Dr. Nilesh Chandra
  • 2. Objectives • Introduction • Challenges in proteomic studies • Some commonly used techniques for separation of proteins from complex biological mixtures. • Comparative Summary
  • 3. Introduction • Proteomics describes the study and characterization of complete set of proteins present in a cell, organ, or organism at a given time. • Proteomic approaches can be used for: – proteome profiling – comparative expression analysis of two or more protein samples – the localization and identification of posttranslational modifications – the study of protein–protein interactions
  • 4. Challenges in proteomics • In spite of new technologies, analysis of complex biological mixtures, ability to quantify separated protein species, sufficient sensitivity for proteins of low abundance, quantification over a wide dynamic range, ability to analyze protein complexes, and high throughput applications is not yet fulfilled. • Biomarker discovery remains a very challenging task due to the complexity of the samples and the wide dynamic range of protein concentrations. • Processing and analysis of proteomics data is a very complex multistep process.
  • 5. Techniques in use • Two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) • Fluorescence 2D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D- DIGE) • Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag (ICAT) • Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) • Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) • Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) • Protein Microarray • Mass spectrometry • Bioinformatics for proteomics
  • 6. 2D Electrophoresis • Entails the separation of complex protein mixtures by: – molecular charge in the first dimension. – mass in the second dimension. • Provides several types of information simultaneously, including: – molecular weight – pI – Quantity – possible posttranslational modifications
  • 8. 2D Electrophoresis • Limitations: – falls short in its reproducibility – falls short in its inability to detect low abundant and hydrophobic proteins, – low sensitivity in identifying proteins with pH values too low (pH < 3) or too high (pH > 10) – molecular masses too small (Mr < 10 kD) or too large (Mr >150 kD) – poor separations of basic proteins due to “streaking” of spots – poor membrane proteins resolution
  • 9. 2D-DIGE • Allows the quantitative comparative analysis of three samples using a single gel. • The major advantages of 2D-DIGE over 2D Electrophoresis are: – the high sensitivity and linearity of its dyes – straightforward protocol – Significant reduction of intergel variability, increasing the possibility to unambiguously identify biological variability, and reducing bias from experimental variation. – use of a pooled internal standard increases quantification accuracy and statistical confidence
  • 10. 2DE-DIGE subproteome profile of marine organism, Bryozoan Bugula neritina after IEF fractionation (pI 4.6–5.4) (a) Cy3 labeled swimming larvae (b) Cy5 labeled settled larvae (c) Cy2 pooled internal standard
  • 11. 2D-DIGE • Limitations of DIGE technique: – proteins without lysine cannot be labeled. – require special equipment for visualization. – fluorophores are very expensive.
  • 12. ICAT • The first quantitative proteomic method to be based solely on using MS. • Extremely helpful to detect peptides with low expression levels. • Major limitations include: – selective detection of proteins with high cysteine content. – difficulties in the detection of acidic proteins.
  • 13. SILAC • More common for cell types; allows to identify new candidate biomarkers. • Requires no chemical manipulation, the amount of labeled proteins requires for analysis using SILAC technique is far less than that with ICAT. • Has been widely used in: – analyzing protein posttranslational modification, such as protein phosphorylation, – detection of protein-protein or peptide-protein interactions and investigating signal transduction pathways. • Major drawback: cannot be applied to tissue protein analysis directly
  • 14. iTRAQ • For relative and absolute quantitation of proteins. • Advantages of using iTRAQ technology include: – the ability to multiplex several samples – quantification – simplified analysis – increased analytical precision and accuracy
  • 16. iTRAQ • Major drawback: – Enzymatic digestion of proteins prior to labelling artificially increases sample complexity and this approach needs a powerful multidimensional fractionation method of peptides before MS identification.
  • 17. MudPIT • Uses strong cation exchange (SCX) and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), followed by MS. • Advantages: – generates an exhaustive list of proteins present in a particular protein sample – is fast and sensitive with good reproducibility • Drawback: – lacks the ability to provide quantitative information.
  • 18. Protein Microarray • High throughput, multiplex immunoassays that measure hundreds of known proteins in complex biological matrices. • Used for quantitative proteomics studies, diagnostic discovery, and biomarker-assisted drug development.
  • 20. Mass Spectrometry • Regardless of the choice of a given proteomic separation technique, gel-based or gel-free, a mass spectrometer is always the primary tool for protein identification. • Mass spectrometers consist of an ion source, the mass analyzer, and an ion detection system. • Analysis of proteins by MS occurs in three major steps: – Protein ionization and generation of gas-phase ions – Separation of ions according to their mass to charge ratio – detection of ions
  • 21. Mass Spectrometry • Two main ionization sources: – matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) – electrospray ionization (ESI) • Four major mass analyzers: – time-of-flight (TOF) – ion trap – quadrupole – fourier transform ion cyclotron (FTIC)
  • 22. Mass Spectrometry • Simple mass spectrometers such as MALDI- TOF are used for only measurement of mass. • Tandem mass spectrometers are used for amino acid sequence determination . • Tandem MS instruments such as triple quadrupole, quadrupole ion trap, fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance, or quadrupole time-of-flight are used to generate peptide fragment ion spectra .
  • 23. Bioinformatics • The major bottlenecks in proteomics research are related to data analysis. • Processing and analysis of proteomics data is indeed a very complex multistep process.
  • 25. Bioinformatics • The major bottlenecks in proteomics research are related to data analysis . • Processing and analysis of proteomics data is indeed a very complex multistep process. • There is a lack of standards for data formats, data processing parameters, and data quality assessment. • Meaningful comparison, sharing, and exchange of data or analysis results obtained on different platforms or by different laboratories, therefore, remain cumbersome .
  • 26. • Usually tools are linked to one specific platform or were optimized for one instrument type. • The various search engines do not yield identical results as they are based on different algorithms and scoring functions, making comparison and integration of results from different studies or experiments tedious. • Peptide identification via database searches is very computationally intensive and time- demanding.
  • 29. Proteomics Gel Based proteomics ShotGun proteomics 2DE/2DE-DIGE MALDI-TOF/ESI-TOF DATA ANALYSIS SEARCH ENGINE PROTEIN DATABASE DE NOVO LABELLING METHODS MudPIT PROTEIN ARRAY ICAT/SILAC/iTRAQ LC-MS/MS SCX-LC,RP-HPLC,RPLC-MS
  • 30. Summary • Scope of proteomics • Difficulties in performing proteomics • Methods in use • Generation of data • Analysis of data • Comparison of methodologies • Process flowchart