7 iomc2013 ppt dksn final

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Presentation at 7th International Online Medical Conference by the following authors from the School of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Daw Khin Saw Naing, Tin Tin Myint, Aye Mya Thidar, Zainal Arifin Mustapha & Kyaw Min

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7 iomc2013 ppt dksn final

  1. 1. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)7th International Online Medical ConferenceIOMC 2013www.iomcworld.com/conference/Daw Khin Saw Naing , Tin Tin Myint , Aye Mya Thidar, Zainal Ariffin Mustapha& Kyaw MinSchool of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS,88400 Kota Kinabalu,Sabah, Malaysia
  2. 2. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) A medical curriculum would not be complete without itsAnatomical component. The medical and health practitioners of the newmillennium are greatly indebted to the efforts made bythe pioneers.• Source : Theatrum Anatomicum2Source: www.livius.orgSource : www.livius.com
  3. 3. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) The technological advances in the twentieth centuryhave allowed scientists to look inside the human bodywithout performing dissections or to conduct an ante-mortem study even without performing surgery. 3 Along with this technological evolution in the study ofHuman Anatomy, progressive attempts had been madeby the medical educators to teach Anatomy without theuse of human cadavers. 43Source : www.cedars.sinai.com
  4. 4. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) The study of the structure of nervous system, the humanneuroanatomy, is crucial to the medical students as wellas to the students of all allied health professions. Even with the use of human cadavers, it is difficult for thestudents to visualize and comprehend the componentsand structural relations of the brain and spinal cord. In neuroanatomy teaching, the tracts in motor andsomato-sensory systems are the most complicatedareas which need simplification for better understandingand memorization. The illustrations in textbooks would not allow students toget an imaginary 3D (three dimensional) view of therelated structures without referring to the cadavers.4
  5. 5. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) Students’ preference for teaching methods (indescending order) wasCadaveric dissection by students,Prosected specimens,living anatomy together with radiological anatomy,computer-aided learning (CAL),didactic lectures andthe use of models. 5 application of those commercial materials in day-to-dayteaching of Anatomy was rather limited due to the costimplications and the materials’ limited relevance tothe intended learning outcomes5
  6. 6. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)66• The Medical School (SPU) of University Malaysia Sabah (UMS), is atraining hub for students coming from all over Malaysia with adiversity of backgrounds and learning styles.• The school is striving for excellence through innovative ways ofimparting knowledge and experiences.• A special study module in Anatomy focuses on student-creativemodels as they are said to be effective in aiding anatomy teachingamong medical students6• The faculty members also exert special efforts on creation of teachermade models for all relevant curricular activities.
  7. 7. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) The pyramidal motor system controls all of ourvoluntary movements that proper understanding ofits pathway is vital for medical students to be able totransfer this knowledge to real life clinical settings. This project was part of an effort to improve thestudents’understanding of the complex structureand pathways of the pyramidal motor system. This project aimed at determining the effectivenessof teacher-made educational model 3D interactive model together with computer aided animationin enhancing medical students’learning ofpyramidal motor system.77
  8. 8. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) A Post-Test Control Comparison design was used. 87 students from Year 1 medical doctor course were divided randomlyinto Test group ( 44 students) & Control group (43 students) An innovative educational aid (three dimensional model and a computeraided animation of pyramidal pathways) was developed and used as ateaching aid for students in “Test” group. All students were exposed to routine didactic lecture on pyramidal tractprior to this educational study.88
  9. 9. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)Educational aid 1:Three dimensional modelEducational aid 2:Computer Animation9
  10. 10. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)10The Year 1 medical students in small groups had Conventional lecture on pyramidal motor system Pre-test with MCQ of True False type covering 30 items onpyramidal motor system Small Group Discussion (SGD) session on pyramidal motor system Both groups were provided with trigger questions and referencematerials as in routine SGDs 43 students in the control group conducted SGD conventionally. 44 students in test group used the Pyrimidal corticospinal tracteducational aid (both the model and computer animation) duringtheir small group discussion time.Both conventional & model aided SGDs were conductedsimultaneously At the end of SGD time, the students took the post-test questions Again after ONE month, the students took the post-test questions Three students from the test group and two from the control group did not take that repeat test.
  11. 11. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)11
  12. 12. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)12
  13. 13. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) This innovative learning aid developed by the teachers had madesignificant effect on medical students’learning of pyramidal motorsystem. Since the earliest times of medical education, a variety of learningaids has been developed, tested and updated to enhance medicalstudents’learning. Though learning is individual, the learning aids help to stimulatestudent’s interest and extend the learners’attention span. In addition the learning aids are useful to assist students in thecomprehension and visualization of the complex structures andfunctions. E. Rathenberg has pointed out that teaching aids can make teachinginteresting by reproducing reality in situations where the exposure toactual reality is not possible or still premature.913
  14. 14. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) Developing a model is the first step in simulating the whole real-worldprocess.10 Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects aresubstituted for the real thing.11 One can model a real world environment in a simplistic way so as tohelp a learner develop an understanding of the key concepts.10,11 Models also assist the student to grasp the nomenclature and todescribe the physical findings. Findings of this study support the claim made by Trung Q Tran et althat teacher made models appeared to be an effective alternative tocostly commercial models for medical students.12 The most common used models are the static ones, which help thestudent to acquire spatial awareness and to understand theconstruction of the organ or the structure. The current attempt was to introduce interactive learning process bycreating an active model and animation so as to stimulate students’interest.14
  15. 15. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013) The educational aids developed by the teachers had significantlyincreased the academic achievements, either immediate or remote. It helped the students to visualize how the nerve impulses weretransmitted from motor area of the cerebral hemisphere to theskeletal muscles through the different levels of the brain and spinalcord. This study was done on Year 1 medical students who had littleor no experience in clinical setting. In spite of that, the model and animation helped the students inexplaining the potential consequences of a lesion severing theneural pathways at specific levels in the central nervoussystem. Thus the medical schools should promote the innovation andutilization of teacher-made educational models to enhance theirstudents’learning of complex issues.15
  16. 16. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)1. US NLM, History of Medicine, Introduction: Dream Anatomy, National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health.https://www.nlm.nih.gov/dreamanatomy/da_timeline_anatomy.html, accessed at 1000hrs 180520132. Robert Carola, John P. Harley & Charles R. Noback. Human Anatomy & Physiology, A Short History of Human Anatomy,McGRAW-Hill Press , Jan 1992, 2 (1): 37-393. Andreasen NC, Cizadlo T, Harris G, Swayze VW, O’Leary DS, Cohen G, Ehrhardt J, Yuh WT: Voxel processing techniques for theantemortem study of neuroanatomy and neuropathology using magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuropsychiatry andClinical Neurosciences 1993; 5: 121-1304. McLachlan JC, Bligh J, Bradley P, Searle J. Teaching anatomy without cadavers, Journal of Medical Education. 2004Apr;38(4):418-24.5. Patel KM, Moxham BJ. Attitudes of professional anatomists to curricular change. Clinical Anatomy 2006: 19:132-41. Comment in:Clin Anat 2006; 19:778-81; author reply 782-3.6. Johanna S. et al. Relationship of creative projects in anatomy to medical student professionalism, test performance and stress: anexploratory study. Leonard BMC Medical Education 2009, 9:65 (3 November 2009)7. Keith L. Moore, 2006. Brain: parts of the Brain. Chapter 7: Head. Clinically oriented Anatomy. 6th edition. Lippincott WilliamsWilkins. 921-9238. Richard S.Snell, 2006. Cerebrum, Midbrain. Chapter 12: Head and Neck; Clinical Neuroanatomy. 6th.edition. Lippincott WilliamsWilkins.701-7049. E. Rathenberg & A Mielck.(1992) Teaching aids used in professional education. How Does One Develop Teaching Aids forProfessional Education? DSE (Deutsche Stiftung für internationale Entwicklung) http://www.giz.de/Themen/en/dokumente/en-pedagogy-how-does-one-develop-teaching-aids.pdf accessed at 2200hrs 1805201310. S. Hartmann (1996). The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences. In R. Hegselmann, et al.. Modellingand Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View. Theory and Decision Library. Dordrecht:Kluwer. pp. 77–100.11. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Simulation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulation#Classification_and_terminology accessed at2300hrs 1805201312. Trung Q Tran,Albert Scherpbier, Jan Van Dalen and Pamela E Wright . Teacher-made models: the answer for medical skillstraining in developing countries? BMC Medical Education 2012 12:98 doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-9816
  17. 17. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)1717
  18. 18. 7th International Online Medical Conference (IOMC 2013)www.iomcworld.com/conference/ (May 24-26, 2013)18

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