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Personal Learning Environment (PLE)
     THEME                   (Attwell, 2007)                (Mcloughlin & Lee...
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Challenges or        Finding balance between          Reevaluate the value of course         Balance teacher cont...
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     THEME             (Aviram, Ronen, Somekh,              (Martindale & Dowdy, 2010)             (Mark Johnson ...
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                                                                                                  technological en...
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Others:                                    Organization model of the
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     THEME             (Scott Wilson et al., 2007)         (Schaffert & Hilzensauer, 2008)          (M.A. Chatti,...
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                     fashion and choose the
                     information and tools to situate
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Challenges or        PLE combines information from         Role of learner - shift from            Model-driven m...
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Amberg, M., Reinhardt, M., & Hofmann, M. H. P. (2009). Designing an Integrated Web-based Personal Lear...
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Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 1 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 2 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 3 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 4 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 5 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 6 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 7 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 8 Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review Slide 9
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Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review

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An example of using synthesis matrix for doing literature review. This matrix is still an on-going effort to synthesize the research topic on Personal Learning Environment (PLE)

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Synthesis Matrix for Literature Review

  1. 1. Page 1 Personal Learning Environment (PLE) THEME (Attwell, 2007) (Mcloughlin & Lee, 2010) (Drexler, 2010) (Amberg, Reinhardt, & (Mohamed Amine Chatti, Hofmann, 2009) Agustiawan, Matthias Jarke, & Marcus Specht, 2010) Definition of PLE Not a piece of software but PLE - a concept adopting Web 2.0 Networked learning - learning in Integration of social software Learning is fundamentally new approach in using technology to promote lifelong which information communication into LMS creates new way of personal, social, distributed, technologies (social software) learning, informal learning and self- technology is used to promote web-based teaching & learning ubiquitous, flexible, dynamic for learning directed learning connections between learners, - PLE and complex in nature. Learning environment - an approach tutors, learning community and VLE - TEL is designed, not an application for identity learning resources authored, organized, and management, social participation & delivered via VLE as statically community of inquiry Personal learning - learner packaged PLE allows learner to take control of autonomy and increased self PLE - more natural and his/her own learning environment regulation learner-centric model to learning that takes small pieces, loosely joined approach, characterized by freeform use of a set of learner-controlled tools and the bottom up creation of knowledge ecologies Pedagogy or PLE supports different learning Self regulated learning - take control Constructivism & connectivism Learning network - learn by Lifelong learning - learning principles style and learners should be of own learning & maintain high influence the instructional design connecting possibilities exist for those able to use different learning level of motivation Networked learning is manifested who want to learn style in different Learning experience - active, in PLE - help take control of and Lifelong independent learning Personalized learning - contexts/domains in satisfying process based, driven by learners' manage own learning User-centered learning learning is person in nature - different learning goals interests, independent learning, Networked student model - approach ability to learn the way learner cultivate self-regulation constructivist approach to learning sees fit Social & participatory pedagogy Network learning - Scaffolding fundamentally social in nature - active producers of knowledge - social nature of web 2.0 through participation, voting, collaboration, sharing, aggregation and distribution Rationale for PLE PLE is an extension to Learners able to make educational Promote knowledge construction, Enlarge community and LMS-centric model of learning accessing educational decisions and take ownership over information vehicle for exploring networking across closed failed to achieve performance technology to be responsible to learning experiences knowledge, active learning tool, course boundaries improvement and innovation - organize one's own learning, Opportunities for authentic learning social medium to promote learning is more than static both formal and informal that is personalized and meaningful conversing, intellectual partner to Increase interaction and content and technology is only to the learners facilitate reflection participation secondary issue Inability to satisfy heterogeneous needs of many learners Skills/processes Develop own judgment and Ability to select appropriate learning Teacher professional development Browse, network, collect, Mashup by aggregation, required literacy skill to use new tools in own learning environment to -ongoing mentoring & support create, communicate, share. mashup by integration in technologies match own learning goals and Personal learning management PLEF to support learners in needs Creator of contents - active building PLEs Communication and participation learner Educator - scaffolding skill Learner - digital literacies Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  2. 2. Page 2 Challenges or Finding balance between Reevaluate the value of course Balance teacher control and Requires higher competence Encouraging lifelong learning, concerns in institutional learning and contents and process & personal student autonomy in connecting distributed valuing both informal and implementation learning globally, skill development Motivation, self direction and contents and customizing formal learning, and Security of data, providers of Lacking of instructional support and technical aptitude - key heterogeneous services recognizing the different technology services task scaffolding considerations required contexts in which learning Biggest challenge: Allow self Changing role of teacher and takes place, as well as the direction, knowledge building and student fundamental changes in the autonomy with choices at the same Evolving innovations perception, technology and time provide structure and Refine instructional design use of Web scaffolding Pedagogical implication Core issue of learning - Achieve balance between personalization of learning scaffolded and learner-directed experience learning activities Others: Social software category - Characteristics of PLE collaboration, communication, relationship management, Personalization information Informal and lifelong learning support Openness and decentralization Bottom-up approach Knowledge-pull Ecological learning Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  3. 3. Page 3 THEME (Aviram, Ronen, Somekh, (Martindale & Dowdy, 2010) (Mark Johnson & Oleg Liber, (Chen, T.-C. Huang, Li, & C.- (van Harmelen, 2006) Winer, & Sarid, 2008) 2008) M. Huang, 2007) Definition of PLE iClass pedagogical model - PLE is specific tool or defined tool Personalization - desire to create Self-regulated learning is goal- PLE is a single user's e- need for developing self- collection used by learner to learner-centered but provider-driven oriented learning strategy - learning system that regulated reflective learners organize his/her own learning education or the view that 'personal applied in self-management provides access to a variety who are able to make informed processes. learning' is fundamentally a learner- learning for promoting learning of learning resources and choices, thoughtfully and driven model of education where the performance of individual that may provide access to strategically direct and plan PLE acts as metaphor to descrive traditional provider-centric role of learner in web-based learning learners and teachers who their own learning as well as activities and milieu of modern institutions is challenged environment use other PLEs and/or VLEs tailor the learning process online learner according to their own needs, PLE gives the learner contorl over interests and preferences his/her own learning process Personalization - adaptation of the learning process and its content to the personal characteristics and preferences of the learner as much as possible Personalization Technology (PT) fosters information-literate learners with necessary multi- disciplinary skills to cater for anticipated life-long learning SRPL - maximizing personalization of learning process, maximized self regulation, mindful and meaningful choice by leaner Pedagogy or Integrative developmental Constructivism and informal Reductionism - knowing and doing Collaborative activities principles pedagogical model for learning - learner as primary factor are separable but contingent motivated by social enhancing Self-regulated in knowledge building constructivism personalized learning (SRPL) - Constructivist - knowledge user centered - allowing users communicated through dialogue PLE fixed in scope, a growing level of autonomy functionality and interface or and control while scaffolding may be personalisable on their ability to reflect and individual basis during use experiment with new learning Control of PLE may vested approaches in their individual users Rationale for PLE Personalization contribute a PLE emerges as result of limitations Promoting 'tool-creating' strategies Self-regulated learning ability Needs of life-long learners - sense of competence and of LMS that PLE seeks to create synergies of individual learner is system provides standard autonomy and triggers the between different practices that obviously an important factor interface to different reflection of learner, learning Recognition of importance of learners engage with - effectively affecting the learning institutions' e-learning process and the relationship informal and lifelong learning creating connections between those performance in a web-based systems Promote learning how to learn Growth of social software practices learning envrionment and the possibility of becoming Response to pedagogical effective lifelong learner Emergence of human power relates Self-regulated learning approaches - require that Catering learning to individual to ways of being and learning and assisted mechanisms promote learner's e-learning systems interest improves learning, PLE argument is that technological spontaneous, autonomous need to be under the control attentional & retrieval change entail changes of ways of and self-regulated learning of the learners themselves processes, acquisition of being - effective personal abilities of learners coordination Needs of learners who knowledge and effort perform learning activities expenditure, increase PLE is organizational response to offline persistence and intrinsic challenges of technological motivation environment - need to change the 'way of being' of learners so they are able to exploit and control Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  4. 4. Page 4 technological environment surrounds them Skills/processes Consciously, intentionally and Learner personally organizes the Ability to make decisions about System direct learner to fill a required mindfully regulated by the self - environment instead of operating appropriate action which maintain self-monitor form before based on processes of within an environment that make the viability of individual progressing courseware learner's choice and sense to instructor or institution learning - self examining and exploration Development of dispositions such self-evaluationg their learning Learner has responsibility for his/her that particular effective techniques goals and performances via Reflection on task or process own content and actions are 'to-hand' the immediately displaying of learning (metacognition) self-regulated learning radar Learner requires to effectively select Ability to create harmony between Reflection on individual & review learning content mind and body and maintain plot with five-dimension self- preferences, values, goals, independently; use several tools at physical and mental balance regulated learning indicators abilities, styles, interests - once in combination; understand the during learning processes. increase self-knowledge strength of various web 2.0; have Ability to control psychological well- better appreciation for intellectual being in the face of environmental Exploration is behavior in property/ownership; internally challenge which an individual translates motivated to learn innate curiosity to a deliberate Ability to identify appropriate actions active experimentation or with other people nonlinear search for info, its Ability to organize technological examination, evaluation in self- environment strategically which can reflective manner - promote facilitate further action-making sense of competence & autonomy Ability to judge outcomes of action and adapt strategy as necessary Ability to apply conceptual frameworks to situations as a tool for formulating strategy Equating of learning and life in management processes and achieving balance in managing different activities Challenges or Technically - how PLE integrate with Unmanageable complexity within concerns in institutional LMS domain of tools to be managed implementation Mining mountains of information and Unable to tie technological action to directing learner to valuable personal identity resources Unable to predict changes in Skills to manage all applications - environment and adjust navigate multiple interfaces, technological practice accordingly passwords, content formats to benefit from myriad offerings - Over-focusing on particular juggling mutliple learning contexts technological practices at the and interfaces exclusion deeper process of environmental adaptation Spend more time learning and re- learning user interfaces of Web 2.0 Challenge of constant evaluation of resources Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  5. 5. Page 5 Others: Organization model of the engagement between learners and technology - central issue is the steering of technological engagement in order to maintain the viability of learners, teachers and educational institutions - Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) Application of VSM to person within PLE to illuminate personal organizational framework and actions learner needs to take to manage their learning Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  6. 6. Page 6 THEME (Scott Wilson et al., 2007) (Schaffert & Hilzensauer, 2008) (M.A. Chatti, M. Jarke, M. Specht, (Milligan et al., 2006) & Schroeder, 2011) Definition of PLE Dominant design - emergence PLE - the idea of a user-centered Mashup indicates a way to create PLE facilitates learner choice of a broadly accepted core learning approach, using Social new (web) applications by combining and control, allowing the design principle from a number software tools existing data and services from selection and combination of of competing incompatible several sources informal and formal learning alternatives - once emerge, Social software - software that opportunities from variety innovative activity is directed to connects people and ensures Mashup by aggregation - assemble sources improving the process by which collaboration and communication sets of info from different sources the dominant design is within single interface PLE as extension of portfolio, Self-directed learning - individuals providing learner centered delivered rather than exploring take initiative with or without the Mashup by integration - complex alternatives environment in which learners help of others, in diagnosing their applications that inegrate different can record achievement and learning needs, formulating learning application programming interfaces plan and work toward new goals, identifying himan and (APIs) to combine data from different goals material resources for learning, sources choosing and implementing VLE provides a set of tools appropriate learning strategies and which allows course content evaluating learning outcomes and student cohorts to be managed efficiently and provide a single point of integration with student record systems Pedagogy or Accept that VLE represents Social software provides the PLE - self-defined collection of Learning can be managed principles dominant design, then consider flexibility that is needed particularly services, tools and devices that help through a set of self-directed the possibility that there lies in informal and collaborative learners build Personal Knowledge learning tools such as blogs, within the alternatives the learning settings, where people with Networks (PKN), encompassing taxit portfolios, feed aggregators possibility of a new design different prior knowledge, learning knowledge (people) and explicit which represents not just a interests and learning activities knowledge (information) refinement of the design but an learn collaboratively with or from entirely new design pattern others - pedagogical know-how and which could offer a very expertise about learning processes different set of possibilities, better reflecting the needs of lifelong learners Rationale for PLE Focus on coordinating Identity - learners have existence Mashup PLE - let learners create VLE - conservative technology connections between user and beyond formal scholl their own learning mashups that - solution to organizational services - PLE is concerned leverage components and content problems: managing students, with enabling wide range of Ease of use - customization by the generated by learning service providing tools and delivering contexts to be coordinated to user providers and other learners around contents support the goals of the user - Control and responsibility of the Web competence-oriented approach ownership - content belongs to the PLE - learners utilize single to learning, explicitly user set of tools, customized to recognizes the need to their needs and preferences integrate experiences in a Copyright and reuse - owner and inside a single learning range of environments not institution has to make these environment including education, work and decisions leisure Web services - allowing Social presence - support of different software tools to Symmetric relationships - user communication and 'online culture' interact with each other to able to consume and publish exchange data and resources; organize resources, Capacity of speed & innovation - information manage contexts and adopt new applications evolve rapidly and tools to suit their needs new features invade PLE conglomerate in learning setting Individualized context - user re- organize information within context as they see it in any Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  7. 7. Page 7 fashion and choose the information and tools to situate within it Open Internet standards and lightweight API - connection in PLE is far more critical than compliance, better to offer wide range of services Open context and remix culture - PLE is concerned with sharing resources, emphasizes creative commons licenses enabling editing, modification and republishing of resources Personal and global scope - PLE operates at personal level in that it coordinates services and information that is related directly to its user and owner - PLE considered global in scope as the range of services it can potentially coordinate is not bounded within any particular organization Skills/processes Collaborative knowledge Active participation on content PLE framework - PLEF-Ext - Learn with other people - required construction using online development enables user-friendly creation, manage relationships in services management, sharing and reuse of learning network Self organization learning and learning mashups Control their learning Connect PLE with social selection of appropriate learning resources - structure, share, networks, knowledge bases, Share, find, integrate, reuse, remix annotate resources work contexts, and learning PLE needs and builds on learning services based on MDMD communities - shared Manage activities they contexts of any size to which approach participate in they can obtain access domain/interest, engagement in joint activities, presence of practitioners Integrate their learning - Tagging and listing should be and the development of shared making links between formal shared with wider community repertoire of resources and informal learning through social bookmarking Learner choose tools to utilize services Active learners who are responsible and have the opportunities to within their learning arrange their own learning environment, aggregates environment learning content from formal education providers and informal sources, provides tools for managing resources and relationships Generic activities: collecting, reflecting, connecting and publishing Context: individual's identity and social network Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  8. 8. Page 8 Challenges or PLE combines information from Role of learner - shift from Model-driven mashup development Interoperablity - vital as VLE is concerns in heterogeneous set of services consumer to prosumer (MDMD) approach to deal with not going to disappear implementation within the purview of user - scalability, interoperability, reuse implication is that the structure Personalization - competence for and automatic service invocation Web services provide the key of the information operated usage of several tools and mediation within mashup PLE to co-existence of VLE and upon will be highly diverse - PLE Content - necessary competence to enabling automatic sharing of search, find and use appropriate ratings and comments made by sources the user on resources with wider network Social involvement - community and collaboration as the central learning Soft boundaries - connecting opportunities large contexts using PLE poses both technical and a Ownership - awareness or personal usability challenge, as it will not data be possible to absorb all information within the context Educational & organizational culture into an environment to be - change of learning culture and operated upon locally - design perspective - move towards self PLE to provide locally organization and self determination meaningful context boundaries Technological apects - required for the user (filter context) interoperability between LMS and Unclear mechanisms for the social software coordination of collective actions by groups and teams within PLE Living with existing systems - how will PLE and VLE design co-exist Others: Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
  9. 9. Page 9 References Amberg, M., Reinhardt, M., & Hofmann, M. H. P. (2009). Designing an Integrated Web-based Personal Learning Environment based on the Crucial Success Factors of Social Networks. Research, Reflections and Innovations in Integrating ICT in Education, 1, 1075–1080. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from Attwell, G. (2007). Personal Learning Environments-the future of eLearning? eLearning papers, 2(1), 1–7. Citeseer. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from Aviram, A., Ronen, Y., Somekh, S., Winer, A., & Sarid, A. (2008). Self-regulated personalised learning (SRPL): Developing iClass s pedagogical model. eLearning Papers, 9. eLearning papers, (9), 1-17. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from regulated+personalised+learning+(SRPL):+Developing+iClass s+pedagogical+model.+eLearning+Papers,+9#0. Chatti, M.A., Jarke, M., Specht, M., & Schroeder, U. (2011). Model-driven mashup personal learning environments. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(1), 21–39. Inderscience. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from Chatti, Mohamed Amine, Agustiawan, M. R., Jarke, Matthias, & Specht, Marcus. (2010). Toward a Personal Learning Environment Framework. International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, 1(4), 66-85. doi: 10.4018/jvple.2010100105. Chen, C.-M., Huang, T.-C., Li, T.-H., & Huang, C.-M. (2007). Personalized E-Learning System with Self-Regulated Learning Assisted Mechanisms for Promoting Learning Performance. Seventh IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2007) (pp. 637-638). Ieee. doi: 10.1109/ICALT.2007.205. Drexler, W. (2010). The networked student model for construction of personal learning environments : Balancing teacher control and student autonomy. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(3), 369-385. Retrieved from Harmelen, M. van. (2006). Personal Learning Environments. Sixth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 06) (pp. 815-816). Ieee. doi: 10.1109/ICALT.2006.1652565. Johnson, Mark, & Liber, Oleg. (2008). The Personal Learning Environment and the human condition: from theory to teaching practice. Interactive Learning Environments, 16(1), 3-15. doi: 10.1080/10494820701772652. Martindale, T., & Dowdy, M. (2010). Personal Learning Environments. G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Using emerging technologies in distance education (Vol. 16, pp. 177-193). Mcloughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. W. (2010). Personalised and self regulated learning in the Web 2 . 0 era : International exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(1), 28-43. Milligan, C., Beauvoir, Phillip, Johnson, M., Sharples, P., Wilson, S., & Liber, O. (2006). Developing a reference model to describe the personal learning environment. Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing, 506–511. Springer. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from Schaffert, S., & Hilzensauer, W. (2008). On the way towards Personal Learning Environments: Seven crucial aspects. Elearning papers, 9(July), 1–10. Citeseer. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from Wilson, Scott, Liber, O., Johnson, Mark, Beauvoir, Phil, Sharples, P., & Milligan, C. (2007). Personal Learning Environments: Challenging the dominant design of educational systems. Journal of e- Learning and Knowledge Society, 2(3). Citeseer. Retrieved April 12, 2011, from Literature Review Matrix by Jennifer Lim
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An example of using synthesis matrix for doing literature review. This matrix is still an on-going effort to synthesize the research topic on Personal Learning Environment (PLE)


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