The Cold War: Actions and Reactions


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Cold War: Actions and Reactions

  1. 1. The Cold WarActionary/Reactionary Behaviours
  2. 2.  5 June 1947: US introduces the “Marshall Plan”, named for Secretary of State George Marshall ◦ Offered financial aid to help all European countries rebuild after the warThe Marshall Plan: Action
  3. 3.  Rationale was that if the economies of these countries were healthy, then there would be no threat of communist growthThe Marshall Plan
  4. 4.  In the end, many countries in Western Europe accepted the money ◦ Between 1948 and 1952, over $13 billion went to these countriesThe Marshall Plan
  5. 5.  1947: As a reaction to the Marshall Plan, the Soviets introduced the “Molotov Plan” ◦ Named for Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav MolotovThe Molotov Plan: Reaction
  6. 6.  The plan was based on free trade among Eastern bloc countries ◦ Available only to Eastern bloc countries Poland, Hungary, and Romania ◦ Soviet intimidation forced these countries to accept this plan over the Marshall PlanThe Molotov Plan
  7. 7.  1. Western European countries grow prosperous with US dollars 2. Eastern European countries fail to prosper and come under greater Soviet controlResults
  8. 8.  24 June 1948: Berlin Blockade ◦ Related to the post-war division of Germany and Berlin that resulted from decisions made at Potsdam and YaltaBerlin Blockade: Action
  9. 9.  As relations between the US and USSR continued to deteriorate the likelihood of a permanent solution to this temporary measure became highly unlikelyBerlin Blockade
  10. 10.  When the Allies decided to merge their 3 zones into a single unit, the Soviets felt threatened and reacted by blocking all road and rail links into West Berlin ◦ (West Berlin was within the Soviet zone)Berlin Blockade
  11. 11.  28 June 1948: US reacts against the blockade by beginning “Operation Vittles”- the Berlin Airlift ◦ Lasted 11 monthsBerlin Airlift: Reaction
  12. 12.  Western powers staged a massive airlift of supplies from Western Germany into West Berlin ◦ Food, fuel, clothes, and medicine are flown to West Berlin ◦ Stalin eventually gives in and ends the blockadeBerlin Airlift
  13. 13.  Permanent division of Germany ◦ May 1949: The 3 occupation zones of the Western powers become the German Federal Republic with the capital in Bonn ◦ Oct. 1949: Soviet zone becomes the German Democratic Republic with the capital in East Berlin ◦ Remains divided until 1990Results
  14. 14. Berlin Airlift
  15. 15.  4 April 1949: US  12 original NATO action to counter the members: “perceived” military ◦ US, Canada, UK, threat from the France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Soviet bloc countries Norway, Iceland, Italy, ◦ Sent a message to the Portugal, Luxembourg USSR that the West was ◦ 1955: West Germany prepared to meet Soviet expansion with resistanceNATO: Action
  16. 16.  Significant because upon accepting the leadership of this organization, the US must then re-arm these countries ◦ It is also the first time that the US joined a military alliance during peacetimeNATO
  17. 17.  1 May 1955: Soviets  Attending countries: react to NATO by USSR, Bulgaria, East signing the Warsaw Germany, Romania, A Pact lbania, Czechoslovaki ◦ Held in a, Poland, and Warsaw, Poland Hungary ◦ 8 countries in attendance ◦ IMPORTANT NOTE: Nikita Khrushchev has become leader of USSR (1953)Warsaw Pact: Reaction
  18. 18.  Its stated purpose was to assist one another in the event of another attack (from NATO) ◦ Unified military command based in MoscowWarsaw Pact
  19. 19.  29 Aug. 1949: The Soviets successfully detonate their first atomic bomb ◦ Truman responds by ordering the development of the hydrogen bomb ◦ Beginning of the Nuclear Arms RaceResults