Objectives • Trace the reasons that the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union unraveled. • Explain how President Truman responded to Soviet domination of Eastern Europe. • Describe the causes and results of Stalin’s blockade of Berlin.
Terms and People• iron curtain − imaginary barrier separating Soviet- controlled countries and the free world• containment − American policy to keep communism contained within its existing borders• Marshall Plan − U.S. aid program to help Western Europe rebuild after World War II• Berlin airlift − operation in which the U.S. and Britain broke the Soviet blockade of West Berlin• NATO − North Atlantic Treaty Organization; military alliance to counter Soviet expansion• Warsaw Pact − rival military alliance formed by the Soviet Union and its satellite states
How did U.S. leaders respond to thethreat of Soviet expansion in Europe?World War II convinced U.S. leaders that thepolicies of isolationism and appeasement hadbeen mistakes.To counter the growing Soviet threat, theysought new ways to keep the U.S. safe andprotect its interests abroad.
General George S. Patton, October1945“Russia knows what she wants. World domination!... Let’s keep our boots polished, bayonets sharpened, and present a picture of force and strength to the Russians. This is the only language that they understand and respect. If we fail to do this, then I would like to say that we have had a victory over the Germans and have disarmed them, but we have lost the war.” ccording to Patton, what is the A goal of the Soviet Union? How was Germany left post- WWII? How can you interpret Patton’s feelings towards the Soviets?
Despite their alliance during World War II,the U.S. and the Soviet Union had little incommon. The United States The Soviet Union was a was a capitalist dictatorship. Stalin and democracy. The the Communist Party American people wielded total control over valued freedom and the lives of the Soviet individual rights. people.
ASThese differences were apparent as the Alliesmade decisions about the future of postwarEurope. Postwar Goals U.S. and Britain U.S.S.R. Strong, united Germany Weak, divided Germany Independence for nations Maintain Soviet control of Eastern Europe of Eastern Europe
When the Big Three met at Yalta, Stalin agreed to allow free elections in Eastern Europe, yet free elections were not held.When the Big Three met again at Potsdam, the U.S.and Britain pressed Stalin to confirm his commitmentto free elections; Stalin refused. The Big Three alliance crumbled.
The nations of Eastern Europe and the eastern part of Germany became satellite states of the Soviet Union, separated from the free world by an “iron curtain.”Cold War Europe, 1949 In his speech in Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill described the extent of the Soviet “iron curtain” shown on the map.
Winston Churchill:“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of… Central and Eastern Europe… The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to preeminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control” March 5, 1946 Where might the Cold War have been most likely to erupt into a hot war? According to Churchill’s speech, did communists make up the majority in Eastern European countries? What does the term iron imply about the division? Why do you think Churchill used the phrase?
After the Big Three split at Potsdam, the Cold War struggle between the world’s two superpowers began.The Soviets weredetermined to The Americansspread were determinedcommunism to to stop them.other lands. Containing communist expansion became the United States’ top priority.
The TrumanDoctrineComplete thequestion to inferencechart provided.
With the Truman Doctrine, the U.S. promised tosupport nations struggling against communistmovements.Money was sent toGreece and Turkey toprovide aid to peoplewho needed it.
The U.S. sent about $13 billion to WesternEurope under the Marshall Plan. The money provided food, fuel, and raw materials to help rebuild war-torn cities and towns.
Germany, and the city of Berlin, became flashpoints in the Cold War. After the war, Germany was divided into four zones.The zonescontrolled by the The Soviet zoneU.S., Britain, and became EastFrance were Germany.combined to formWest Germany.
West Berlin was controlled by the Allies.The prosperity Determined In response,and freedoms to capture the U.S. andthere stood in West Berlin, Britain sentstark contrast Stalin aid to Westto the bleak blockaded Berlinlife in the city, through acommunist cutting off massiveEast Berlin. supplies. airlift.
The Berlin airlift saved West Berlin andunderscored the U.S. commitment to containcommunism. The Soviet blockade cuased more then 2 million West Berliners to face severe shortages of food and other vital supplies. For more than a year, American and British pilots flew round-the-clock deliveries into the city – sometimes at the rate of a plane per minute. Each flight brought food, fuel, and occasionally candy to the desperate population.
As Cold War tensions mounted, both sides formedmilitary alliances for collective security. NATO Warsaw PactBelgium Netherlands AlbaniaCanada Norway BulgariaDenmark Portugal CzechoslovakiaFrance Turkey East GermanyGreece United Kingdom HungaryIceland United States PolandItaly West Germany RomaniaLuxembourg Soviet Union
Ticket out the Door:1. How did the U.S. leaders respond to the threat of communism and the Soviet Union?2. What options besides containment might Truman have considered in response to Soviet expansion?Do you believe that the United States should, or should not have, expanded their military globally during the early years of the Cold War? Why, or why not? Use evidence from your notes to explain.