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SPECIFIC
CAPACITY

DEFINITION

COGNITIVE PROCESSES
COGNITIVE / MOTOR
PROCESSES
Reception of Information

COMPARE

Capacity to compare
between two or more
elements, objects,
processes or phenomenon
in order to find similarities
or differences.

Process by which characteristics and references are shown.

Recognition

Process by which the real characteristics of the recognition object are
contrasted with the existing characteristics in the mental structures.

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures.

Characteristics Identification and
contrast

Process by which characteristics of each element are identified and
compared with characteristics of another element

Difference demonstration

Process by which differences between one element and another are
shown

Reception of Information

DISCRIMINATE

Capacity to find essential
differences between two or
more elements, processes
or phenomenon.

Characterization

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures

Individual Characteristics
Identification

Process by which references from each element are identified and
shown

Characteristics contrast of two or
more study objects

Process by which the characteristics of two or more elements are
contrasted

EVIDENCE OF THE
PROCESS

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures.

Reception of Information

IDENTIFY

Capacity to locate in time,
in space, or in some
physical element, parts
characteristics, characters,
instructions or other
aspects.

COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIFIC
CAPACITIES THAT
HAVE SIMILAR
PROCESSES

RECOGNIZE

The student identifies
when he/she points at
something, marks,
underlines, highlights
expressions, makes a list,
records what he/she
observes, etc.

The student discriminates
when he/she makes a
double entry chart,
explains the differences,
selects something
significant from a group
of elements.

The student compares
when he/she finds
common elements or
different aspects among
the observed phenomena,
makes comparative
charts, parallels.

2
SPECIFIC
CAPACITY

DEFINITION

COGNITIVE / MOTOR
PROCESSES

COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Determining criteria or specifications

ANALYZE

Capacity that allows to
divide the whole into its parts
in order to study, explain, or
justify something
establishing relationship
among them.

Identifying and contrasting criteria or
specifications with prototypes

Process by which characteristics of elements are identified and
contrasted with the criteria or specifications
Process by which an element is chosen
Process by which information is carried to the mental structures.

Identification of the elements to be
organized

Process by which the elements and context to be organized are
located

Determining criteria in order to organize

Process by which organizing criteria is established

Placement of the elements considering
the established criteria and order

Process by which the action or placement of the elements
according to the established criteria take place

Reception of Information

ORGANIZE

Process by which information in diverse contexts or sources is
searched for

Reception of Information
Capacity that allows to place
in an organized way elements
objects, processes, or
phenomena having into
account certain criteria.

Search for information

Process by which information is carries to the mental structures

Selective observation

Process by which the information is selectively observed
identifying the main, secondary and complementary information

Dividing all into its parts

Procedure by which the information is divided into parts, grouping
ideas or elements

Interrelationship of the parts in order to
explain or justify

Procedure by which something is explained or justified
establishing relationship among its part or elements from the whole

EVIDENCE OF THE
PROCESS

Process by which criteria or specifications are established which
will serve as reference for selecting

Making a choice

SELECT

Capacity that allows to
choose elements of a whole
according to certain criteria
and with a defined purpose.

SPECIFIC CAPACITIES
THAT HAVE SIMILAR
PROCESSES

The student selects when
separating objects,
characteristics; when he
records information of
his interest; when he
makes a choice

The student organizes
when he makes a
flowchart, conceptual
maps, semantic webs,
diagrams, charts; he
places each thing in its
place.

The student analyzes
when he identifies the
main facts of a historic
event, establishes
relationship among them,
determines its causes and
consequences and
explains them in
relationship with the
whole

3
SPECIFIC
CAPACITY

DEFINITION

COGNITIVE / MOTOR
PROCESSES

COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Reception of information

APPLY

Capacity that allows to put
into practice principles and
knowledge in concrete
activities.

Contrasting premises with context

Process by which premises and assumptions are contrasted with
the context.
Process by which inferences are obtained from the premises and
assumptions.

Formulation of criteria

Process by which criteria which will allow to give a judgment is
established.

Contrasting criteria with referents

Process by which organizing criteria is established

Giving opinion or judgment.

Process by which the established criteria is compared with the
referent in order to find the merits and drawbacks

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures

Identification, principle or concept that
will be applied

Process by which the process, principle or concept that are
expected to be applied are identified and understood

Sequencing processes and choosing
strategies

Procedure by which sequences, order and strategies are established
for the procedures to be carried out.

Execution of processes and strategies

Procedure by which the processes and established strategies are put
into practice.

EVIDENCE OF THE
PROCESS

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures.

Reception of Information

JUDGE

Process by which information that will be used as a basis of
inference is identified.

Reception of Information
Capacity to question the state
of a phenomenon, the
production of an event,
thoughts from others,
organization ways trying to
find their virtues and faults
and taking on a position in
such respect.

Identification of premises

Formulation of inferences

INFER

Capacity to obtain new
information starting with
explicit information or from
other evidence.

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures

SPECIFIC CAPACITIES
THAT HAVE SIMILAR
PROCESSES

The student infers when
he/she makes deductions,
gives meaning to the
expressions from
context, determines the
meaning of slogans, gives
meaning to non-verbal
resources and to people’s
behavior, determines
causes and possible
consequences.

The student makes a
judgment when he/she
gives a personal opinion,
makes comments,
proposes arguments in
favor or against,
expresses points of view.

The student applies when
he/she uses, administers
or puts into practice
certain knowledge, a
principle, a formula or a
process with the purpose
of obtaining a determined
effect, result, or
performance in someone
or something

4
SPECIFIC
CAPACITY

DEFINITION

COGNITIVE / MOTOR
PROCESSES

COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Reception of information

FORMULATE

Capacity that allows to
establish relationship among
elements to present results,
new constructions, or to
solve problems.

Process by which the elements that must be related in order to
obtain results or generate new constructions are identified.

Generate an order and sequence of the
representation

Process by which an order or sequence to make the representation
is established.
Process by which the form or external and internal situation is
represented.

Reception of Information

ARGUE

Process by which one is aware of the form and the elements that
make the object or situation which will be represented.

Process by which information is carried or recovered from the
mental structures.

Selective observation of the information
that will be argued on

Process by which the information that will be used to support the
arguments are identified.

Presenting the arguments

Procedure by which the written or oral arguments are presented.

The student formulates
when he/she expresses
through mathematics
symbols the relationship
among different
magnitudes which will
allow him/her to obtain a
result.

Process by which the object or situation that will be represented is
observed closely.

Representation of the form or external
or internal situation

Capacity that allows to
support or hold points of
view.

Process by which the relationship among elements are put into
practice obtaining results or new constructions.

Description of the form/situation and
location of its elements

PROPOSE

Process by which the relationship among the elements are
established.

Observation of the object or situation
that will represented

REPRESENT

Interrelationship of the elements

Presentation of the interrelationships

Capacity that permits to
represent objects by means of
drawings, sketches,
diagrams, etc.

EVIDENCE OF THE
PROCESS

Process by which information is carried to the mental structures

Identification of elements

SPECIFIC CAPACITIES
THAT HAVE SIMILAR
PROCESSES

DIAGRAM
OUTLINE
DESIGN

The student represents
when drawing an object,
participates in a play,
draws a plan, sketch, or
diagram.

MAKE A GRAPHIC
DRAW

The student discusses
when he/she states with
supporting details certain
topics or points of view
in a presentation,
discussion or argument.

5
SPECIFIC
CAPACITY

DEFINITION

COGNITIVE / MOTOR
PROCESSES

Reception of information of what to do,
why to do so, and how to do so.

ELABORATE

Capacity that allows to
execute a process, task or
operation.

COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Process by which information about what is going to be carried out and
how it will be done is received, in some case it is required to
incorporate visual images of how it will be done.

Identification and sequencing of the
involved procedures

Process by which procedure that will be used are identified and
sequenced.

Execution of the procedures controlled
by the thought

Process by which the procedures of the execution are put into
practice . In a first instance, controlled by the mind, and in a second
instance, putting into practice the procedures in an automatic form.

SPECIFIC
CAPACITIES THAT
HAVE SIMILAR
PROCESSES

OPERATE
ELABORATE
EXECUTE

EVIDENCE OF THE
PROCESS

The student elaborates
when he/she carries out
a procedure to produce
a good, a physical
movement, a dance
step, etc.

6
SPECIFIC
CAPACITY

DEFINITION

COGNITIVE / MOTOR
PROCESSES

Reception of information of what to do,
why to do so, and how to do so.

ELABORATE

Capacity that allows to
execute a process, task or
operation.

COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Process by which information about what is going to be carried out and
how it will be done is received, in some case it is required to
incorporate visual images of how it will be done.

Identification and sequencing of the
involved procedures

Process by which procedure that will be used are identified and
sequenced.

Execution of the procedures controlled
by the thought

Process by which the procedures of the execution are put into
practice . In a first instance, controlled by the mind, and in a second
instance, putting into practice the procedures in an automatic form.

SPECIFIC
CAPACITIES THAT
HAVE SIMILAR
PROCESSES

OPERATE
ELABORATE
EXECUTE

EVIDENCE OF THE
PROCESS

The student elaborates
when he/she carries out
a procedure to produce
a good, a physical
movement, a dance
step, etc.

6

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Cognitive Processes (1)

  • 1. 1
  • 2. SPECIFIC CAPACITY DEFINITION COGNITIVE PROCESSES COGNITIVE / MOTOR PROCESSES Reception of Information COMPARE Capacity to compare between two or more elements, objects, processes or phenomenon in order to find similarities or differences. Process by which characteristics and references are shown. Recognition Process by which the real characteristics of the recognition object are contrasted with the existing characteristics in the mental structures. Process by which information is carried to the mental structures. Characteristics Identification and contrast Process by which characteristics of each element are identified and compared with characteristics of another element Difference demonstration Process by which differences between one element and another are shown Reception of Information DISCRIMINATE Capacity to find essential differences between two or more elements, processes or phenomenon. Characterization Process by which information is carried to the mental structures Individual Characteristics Identification Process by which references from each element are identified and shown Characteristics contrast of two or more study objects Process by which the characteristics of two or more elements are contrasted EVIDENCE OF THE PROCESS Process by which information is carried to the mental structures. Reception of Information IDENTIFY Capacity to locate in time, in space, or in some physical element, parts characteristics, characters, instructions or other aspects. COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS SPECIFIC CAPACITIES THAT HAVE SIMILAR PROCESSES RECOGNIZE The student identifies when he/she points at something, marks, underlines, highlights expressions, makes a list, records what he/she observes, etc. The student discriminates when he/she makes a double entry chart, explains the differences, selects something significant from a group of elements. The student compares when he/she finds common elements or different aspects among the observed phenomena, makes comparative charts, parallels. 2
  • 3. SPECIFIC CAPACITY DEFINITION COGNITIVE / MOTOR PROCESSES COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS Determining criteria or specifications ANALYZE Capacity that allows to divide the whole into its parts in order to study, explain, or justify something establishing relationship among them. Identifying and contrasting criteria or specifications with prototypes Process by which characteristics of elements are identified and contrasted with the criteria or specifications Process by which an element is chosen Process by which information is carried to the mental structures. Identification of the elements to be organized Process by which the elements and context to be organized are located Determining criteria in order to organize Process by which organizing criteria is established Placement of the elements considering the established criteria and order Process by which the action or placement of the elements according to the established criteria take place Reception of Information ORGANIZE Process by which information in diverse contexts or sources is searched for Reception of Information Capacity that allows to place in an organized way elements objects, processes, or phenomena having into account certain criteria. Search for information Process by which information is carries to the mental structures Selective observation Process by which the information is selectively observed identifying the main, secondary and complementary information Dividing all into its parts Procedure by which the information is divided into parts, grouping ideas or elements Interrelationship of the parts in order to explain or justify Procedure by which something is explained or justified establishing relationship among its part or elements from the whole EVIDENCE OF THE PROCESS Process by which criteria or specifications are established which will serve as reference for selecting Making a choice SELECT Capacity that allows to choose elements of a whole according to certain criteria and with a defined purpose. SPECIFIC CAPACITIES THAT HAVE SIMILAR PROCESSES The student selects when separating objects, characteristics; when he records information of his interest; when he makes a choice The student organizes when he makes a flowchart, conceptual maps, semantic webs, diagrams, charts; he places each thing in its place. The student analyzes when he identifies the main facts of a historic event, establishes relationship among them, determines its causes and consequences and explains them in relationship with the whole 3
  • 4. SPECIFIC CAPACITY DEFINITION COGNITIVE / MOTOR PROCESSES COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS Reception of information APPLY Capacity that allows to put into practice principles and knowledge in concrete activities. Contrasting premises with context Process by which premises and assumptions are contrasted with the context. Process by which inferences are obtained from the premises and assumptions. Formulation of criteria Process by which criteria which will allow to give a judgment is established. Contrasting criteria with referents Process by which organizing criteria is established Giving opinion or judgment. Process by which the established criteria is compared with the referent in order to find the merits and drawbacks Process by which information is carried to the mental structures Identification, principle or concept that will be applied Process by which the process, principle or concept that are expected to be applied are identified and understood Sequencing processes and choosing strategies Procedure by which sequences, order and strategies are established for the procedures to be carried out. Execution of processes and strategies Procedure by which the processes and established strategies are put into practice. EVIDENCE OF THE PROCESS Process by which information is carried to the mental structures. Reception of Information JUDGE Process by which information that will be used as a basis of inference is identified. Reception of Information Capacity to question the state of a phenomenon, the production of an event, thoughts from others, organization ways trying to find their virtues and faults and taking on a position in such respect. Identification of premises Formulation of inferences INFER Capacity to obtain new information starting with explicit information or from other evidence. Process by which information is carried to the mental structures SPECIFIC CAPACITIES THAT HAVE SIMILAR PROCESSES The student infers when he/she makes deductions, gives meaning to the expressions from context, determines the meaning of slogans, gives meaning to non-verbal resources and to people’s behavior, determines causes and possible consequences. The student makes a judgment when he/she gives a personal opinion, makes comments, proposes arguments in favor or against, expresses points of view. The student applies when he/she uses, administers or puts into practice certain knowledge, a principle, a formula or a process with the purpose of obtaining a determined effect, result, or performance in someone or something 4
  • 5. SPECIFIC CAPACITY DEFINITION COGNITIVE / MOTOR PROCESSES COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS Reception of information FORMULATE Capacity that allows to establish relationship among elements to present results, new constructions, or to solve problems. Process by which the elements that must be related in order to obtain results or generate new constructions are identified. Generate an order and sequence of the representation Process by which an order or sequence to make the representation is established. Process by which the form or external and internal situation is represented. Reception of Information ARGUE Process by which one is aware of the form and the elements that make the object or situation which will be represented. Process by which information is carried or recovered from the mental structures. Selective observation of the information that will be argued on Process by which the information that will be used to support the arguments are identified. Presenting the arguments Procedure by which the written or oral arguments are presented. The student formulates when he/she expresses through mathematics symbols the relationship among different magnitudes which will allow him/her to obtain a result. Process by which the object or situation that will be represented is observed closely. Representation of the form or external or internal situation Capacity that allows to support or hold points of view. Process by which the relationship among elements are put into practice obtaining results or new constructions. Description of the form/situation and location of its elements PROPOSE Process by which the relationship among the elements are established. Observation of the object or situation that will represented REPRESENT Interrelationship of the elements Presentation of the interrelationships Capacity that permits to represent objects by means of drawings, sketches, diagrams, etc. EVIDENCE OF THE PROCESS Process by which information is carried to the mental structures Identification of elements SPECIFIC CAPACITIES THAT HAVE SIMILAR PROCESSES DIAGRAM OUTLINE DESIGN The student represents when drawing an object, participates in a play, draws a plan, sketch, or diagram. MAKE A GRAPHIC DRAW The student discusses when he/she states with supporting details certain topics or points of view in a presentation, discussion or argument. 5
  • 6. SPECIFIC CAPACITY DEFINITION COGNITIVE / MOTOR PROCESSES Reception of information of what to do, why to do so, and how to do so. ELABORATE Capacity that allows to execute a process, task or operation. COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS Process by which information about what is going to be carried out and how it will be done is received, in some case it is required to incorporate visual images of how it will be done. Identification and sequencing of the involved procedures Process by which procedure that will be used are identified and sequenced. Execution of the procedures controlled by the thought Process by which the procedures of the execution are put into practice . In a first instance, controlled by the mind, and in a second instance, putting into practice the procedures in an automatic form. SPECIFIC CAPACITIES THAT HAVE SIMILAR PROCESSES OPERATE ELABORATE EXECUTE EVIDENCE OF THE PROCESS The student elaborates when he/she carries out a procedure to produce a good, a physical movement, a dance step, etc. 6
  • 7. SPECIFIC CAPACITY DEFINITION COGNITIVE / MOTOR PROCESSES Reception of information of what to do, why to do so, and how to do so. ELABORATE Capacity that allows to execute a process, task or operation. COGNITIVE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS Process by which information about what is going to be carried out and how it will be done is received, in some case it is required to incorporate visual images of how it will be done. Identification and sequencing of the involved procedures Process by which procedure that will be used are identified and sequenced. Execution of the procedures controlled by the thought Process by which the procedures of the execution are put into practice . In a first instance, controlled by the mind, and in a second instance, putting into practice the procedures in an automatic form. SPECIFIC CAPACITIES THAT HAVE SIMILAR PROCESSES OPERATE ELABORATE EXECUTE EVIDENCE OF THE PROCESS The student elaborates when he/she carries out a procedure to produce a good, a physical movement, a dance step, etc. 6