A scientific and systematic process of gatheringinformation in order to answer the question(s) or thehypothesis posted objectively (example: the relationshipbetween phenomena like motivation & academicachievement)Educational research- a scientific and systematic process of gatheringinformation about the hypothesized relations betweenphenomena in the field of education with the aim ofimproving student learning.What is Research?What is Research?
Research is scientific because the knowledge acquiredis based on empirical evidence through the scientificprocess of gathering information/knowledge as follows:(1) Formulate a hypothesis about the relationshipbetween certain constructs(2) Test the hypothesis by designing an empiricalstudy(3) Collect data(4) Make decision to accept or reject thehypothesisInformation/Knowledge acquisition is NOT based onInformation/Knowledge acquisition is NOT based onAUTHORITY, TRADITION, COMMONSENSE, MEDIAAUTHORITY, TRADITION, COMMONSENSE, MEDIAMYTHS, PERSONAL EXPERIENCEMYTHS, PERSONAL EXPERIENCE but EVIDENCEbut EVIDENCE
Research is systematic in the sense that it followsseveral definite sequential steps. These steps makeup the Research Process.(1) Generating research ideas(2) Formulating the research problem(3) Developing hypotheses/research questions(4) Designing a study to test hypotheses/answerresearch questions(5) Collecting data(6) Analysing and interpreting data(7) Communicating results
Characteristics of ResearchResearch begins with a problemResearch requires a planResearch demands a clear problem statementResearch deals with the main problem throughsubproblems operationalised as researchquestions/hypothesesResearch seeks direction through researchquestions/hypothesesResearch deals with facts and their meaning
Preliminary Understanding of Quantitative &Qualitative ResearchExamine the two research studies on “Reasons fordiscipline problems in school” and decide which isquantitative and which is qualitative. Justify your answers.Researcher A identifiesfactors that influence/affect discipline, develop aquestionnaire andadminister it to a sampleof problem students. Hethen analyses the data andidentify significant factorsor rank the factors in orderof dominance.Researcher B interviews asample of problem studentsindividually or as a smallgroup. He interacts with themand observes their behaviours.He also examines counsellors’reports and school reportcards. He records all theinformation obtained andanalyses it for patterns thatemerge.
Quantitative ResearchQuantitative Research Qualitative ResearchQualitative ResearchPhilosophyPhilosophy Positivism:Positivism:Knowledge can only come from positiveKnowledge can only come from positiveaffirmation of theories through strictaffirmation of theories through strictscientific methodscientific methodPhenomenologyPhenomenologyKnowledge is discovered through an open,Knowledge is discovered through an open,unbiased description of experienceunbiased description of experiencePurpose/Purpose/GoalGoalTo study relationship, cause and effectTo study relationship, cause and effectTo test hypotheses & to make predictionsTo test hypotheses & to make predictionsTo study social phenomena or things as theyTo study social phenomena or things as theyappear in our experience.appear in our experience.To explain, interpret and describe phenomenaTo explain, interpret and describe phenomenaFocusFocus Quantity (Variables - How much & HowQuantity (Variables - How much & Howmany)many)Quality (Features- What)Quality (Features- What)DesignDesign Structured, predeterminedStructured, predetermined(Developed prior to study)(Developed prior to study)Flexible, emergingFlexible, emerging(Evolves during study)(Evolves during study)MethodMethod Experiment, quasi-experimental, survey,Experiment, quasi-experimental, survey,etcetcEthnography, case study, etcEthnography, case study, etcSampleSample Large, random, representationLarge, random, representation Small, purposefulSmall, purposefulDataDataCollectionCollectionTests, questionnaires, controlledTests, questionnaires, controlledinterventioninterventionInterviews, observation, documents, artifactsInterviews, observation, documents, artifactsAnalysisAnalysis Deductive (by statistical methods)Deductive (by statistical methods) Inductive (narrative and interpretation byInductive (narrative and interpretation byresearcher)researcher)FindingsFindings Specific, precise & numericalSpecific, precise & numerical Holistic, detailed & descriptiveHolistic, detailed & descriptiveResearcherResearcher DetachedDetached ImmersedImmersed
DEDUCTIVE APPROACH INQUANTITATIVE RESEARCH4. Confirm or revisetheory based on thehypotheses tested3. Conduct the study tocollect data2. Design an empirical studyto test hypotheses1. Formulate hypotheses basedon available theory/theoriesINDUCTIVE APPROACH ININDUCTIVE APPROACH INQUALITATIVE RESEARCHQUALITATIVE RESEARCH4. Formulate and4. Formulate andgenerate theory based ongenerate theory based onrich descriptive datarich descriptive data3. Formulate tentative3. Formulate tentativehypotheses & gather furtherhypotheses & gather furtherinformationinformation2. Look for patterns in the forms2. Look for patterns in the formsof themes, categories thatof themes, categories thatemergeemerge1. Conduct observation1. Conduct observation(Participant/non-participant)(Participant/non-participant)
Research DesignThe outline, plan or strategy specifying theprocedure to be used in seeking an answer to theresearch question (or to do the research)The design indicates: how to collect and analyse the data (esp. the typeof analysis needed to answer the res. questions) how extraneous variables are controlled orincluded in the study how conclusions can be drawn
ResearchDesignWeakDesignTrueDesignExperimentalQuasi-ExperimentalNon-Equivalent Control-Group DesignOne-Shot DesignOne-group Pretest-Posttest DesignNon-equivalentPosttest-only DesignAfter-only ResearchDesign (Posttest-only Control GroupDesign)FactorialDesignBefore-After Research Design(Pretest-Posttest Control GroupDesign)TYPES OFTYPES OFRESEARCHRESEARCHDESIGNSDESIGNSInterrupted Time Series Design
Ethics in ResearchRespect human values & protect human rightsDetermine the degree of risks involvedPrincipal researcher undertakes full responsibility of thestudyInform the subject before or after, the nature of theexperimentRespect individual’s freedom to decline participationAll information collected & subjects involved should bekept confidential. Report group performance, notindividual performance.
RESEARCH PROCESS: BASIC 5STEPSIDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM /FOCUSPLANNING TO ANSWER QUESTIONS ABOUT THEPROBLEMIMPLEMENTING THE PLANCOLLECTING DATA TO ANSWER THEQUESTIONS
Can be more elaborate steps like:(1) Generating research ideas(2) Formulating the research problem(3) Developing hypotheses/research questions(4) Designing a study to test hypotheses/answerresearch questions(5) Collecting data(6) Analysing and interpreting data(7) Communicating results
IMPORTANT OF LITERATUREREVIEW IN IDENTIFYINGRESEARCH PROBLEM
To understand in depth about the problem to be studiedTo know what has been done about this problemTo gain insights into the theories, approaches andmethodologies adopted by different researchers. (This willprovide sound theoretical and methodological frameworksfor the intended study.)To identify gaps in the literature so that the intendedstudy can focus on a research area that is significant andthat has not been explored adequately. This will ensurethat the research done will contribute towards knowledgeand/or theory development.PURPOSE OF LITERATURE REVIEW
To help researchers to delimit the research problem(narrow the scope) and define it clearly so that it has theright focus.To ensure that research to be done is on the right track inline with the current trends. (Such information can beobtained from the Recommendations for further researchsection of every research study. These recommendationsare useful because they represent the insights of theresearcher after he/she has studied the phenomenon.)To provide the intellectual context for the research to bedone, enabling the researcher to position his/her workrelative to other work. This is possible because the reviewwill show what has been done in the field and how thenew study relates to earlier research.
Theory & Review of LiteratureTheory a statement or set of statements that explain andpredict phenomena. a statement that indicates the relationship between two ormore eventsAusubel’s Meaningful Learning TheoryMeaningful Learning takes place when a learner integrate newinformation with old informationWhat does Ausubel.s Theory predict?What variables does the theory try to relate?
THE ROLE OF THEORY IN EDUCATIONALRESEARCHTheory provides an important guide or focus for thedirection of research by pointing to areas in whichmeaningful relationships of events (variables) are likely tobe found.Theory provides a rational basis for explaining orinterpreting the results of the research.Theory enables the researcher to make predictions about awide range of situations
Review of LiteratureGive an in-depth account of key works and informationavailable on a research topicAspects normally covered:Aspects normally covered: specific areas investigatedspecific areas investigated theories & approaches usedtheories & approaches used samples involvedsamples involved variables examinedvariables examined analyses usedanalyses used findings obtainedfindings obtainedSources:Sources:research articles (e.g. Journals)research articles (e.g. Journals)& academic writings (e.g.& academic writings (e.g.books)books)How are the studies related toyour research?What has been researched &what needs further research?What insights have youobtained about the area to bestudied (e.g. approaches,methodologies. analyses andinterpretation of findings) andthe trends that have emerged?
Sources of Literature ReviewSecondary Sources (Sumber Sekunder)Materials written based on the works of others (e.g. referencebooks, text books, published academic writings, etc)Primary Sources (Sumber Asli)Materials written by someone who actually conducted theinvestigation – 1sthand information. (e.g. research articlespublished in journals.)Note: Research articles also contain information from secondarysources when the writers quote the works of other people
Common weaknesses in Lit. ReviewMere presentation of research information withoutrelating it to the intended studyMere presentation of research information without anycritical evaluationMere listing of past studies in isolation without makingany connection among them – differences & similaritiesHeavy reliance on secondary sources and/or outdatedstudiesPoor citations (Refer to APA)Plagiarism