United States History Topic 05: The Road to War Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
An Increase in Industry [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The United States began to encourage the growth of industry ...
An Increase in Industry [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Robert Fulton invented the steam engine in the 1800s; </li><...
Capturing California [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The United States became involved in the Mexican War; </li></ul...
Protesting the War w/ Mexico [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Many people were upset by the War with Mexico; belief w...
Did you know? [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Do you know how the San Francisco 49ers, NFL Football team got their n...
Rushing for Gold [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>With Cali part of the US in 1848, gold is discovered; </li></ul><ul...
The Trip of a Lifetime [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Pres. Polk: “There looks to be enough gold in Cali to pay the...
Coming Over & Spreading Out [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>By 1860, the country’s pop. Was 31.4 million people, nea...
Coming Over & Spreading Out [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Most immigrants (early 1800s) were from either Germany o...
I, Um… Know Nothing [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The rise of immigration also increased the anti-immigrant feelin...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Slave sale advertisement.
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>The trade begins in the mid-1400s w...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Three reasons all combined: </li></u...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Where to? Where from? North America South America Africa 5% 60% 35%...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Figure: Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to t...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>By the numbers; </li></ul><ul><li>30 million  taken from th...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The Crossing </li></ul><ul><li>Canary Islands to the Windwa...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Conditions on the slavers; </li></ul><ul><li>Crowded, unsan...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Plan of the British Slave Ship  Brookes , 1788. This plan, which ma...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Slaves were fed twice daily; </li></ul><ul><li>Poor and ins...
The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
A “Dred”ful Decision [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Dred Scott was a slave who was taken by his master to Illinois,...
A “Dred”ful Decision [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The Scott decision helped to boost business on the Underground ...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Southern Claim:  Northern slaveholders were much cru...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Northern treatment of slaves…records indicate: </li>...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Southern claim:  NY city was capital of slave trade—...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Southern claim:  slavery was less cruel in the south...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Slave labor has also been mischaracterized as lastin...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Slaves & masters lived side by side; </li></ul><ul><...
Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>It is true that there were some large slaveholders i...
Lincoln vs. Douglas [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] In the  BLUE  corner… Illinois State Senator 5’ 1” Stephen Douglas In th...
The Lincoln-Douglas Debate [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Lincoln and Douglas were debating for a seat in the US Se...
Spark # 01: John Brown [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>John Brown, an abolitionist, believed that he had been comman...
Spark # 02: Lincoln’s Election [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Lincoln was nominated by the Republican Party for the...
Spark # 02: Lincoln’s Election [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Before he could even take office seven Southern state...
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Topic.05 The Road to War

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  • Topic.05 The Road to War

    1. 1. United States History Topic 05: The Road to War Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
    2. 2. An Increase in Industry [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The United States began to encourage the growth of industry by 1800; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first factory, devoted to spinning cotton into thread, opened in 1790 in New England; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1815, there were 213 such factories; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributions to US industrialization : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interchangeable parts (Eli Whitney) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water & steam power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in the demand for American made goods </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. An Increase in Industry [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Robert Fulton invented the steam engine in the 1800s; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulton’s invention allowed for the development of the steamboat; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This allowed for two-way travel on the US rivers… </li></ul></ul>Was the steam engine important for US industry?
    4. 4. Capturing California [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The United States became involved in the Mexican War; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the goals was to capture California territory and expand the US coast-to-coast; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave the US more than 500,000 sq. miles of territory; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Polk agreed to pay Mexico $18.25 million dollars … </li></ul>Does that sound like a fair price? = $36.50 per square mile
    5. 5. Protesting the War w/ Mexico [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Many people were upset by the War with Mexico; belief was that it was unjust to attack a country for land; </li></ul><ul><li>Henry David Thoreau was jailed for not paying taxes to support war; </li></ul><ul><li>He later wrote in “Civil Disobedience”; </li></ul><ul><li>“ That government is best which governs least.” </li></ul>Do you agree with Thoreau?
    6. 6. Did you know? [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Do you know how the San Francisco 49ers, NFL Football team got their name? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Rushing for Gold [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>With Cali part of the US in 1848, gold is discovered; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This discovery will ignite one of the most massive migrations in human history; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 90,000 people will make their way to Cali in the two years following the discovery of gold… </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Trip of a Lifetime [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Pres. Polk: “There looks to be enough gold in Cali to pay the costs of the Mexican War many times over.” </li></ul><ul><li>Murder and crime were common in Gold Rush towns; </li></ul><ul><li>There were almost no women in the “Wild West”… </li></ul>
    9. 9. Coming Over & Spreading Out [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>By 1860, the country’s pop. Was 31.4 million people, nearly 4x what it was in 1800; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People were coming from all over the world to see what “America” had to offer; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants tended to settle with their own people; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities tended to be dark, smelly, filthy and violent; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The avg. city factory worker, labored 6 days a week, 10 – 11 hours a day would make $5.00 ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The minimum cost of living in 1851, was $10 a week… </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Coming Over & Spreading Out [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Most immigrants (early 1800s) were from either Germany or Ireland; </li></ul><ul><li>Fare to cross the Atlantic was between $10 - $12; </li></ul><ul><li>The ships would bring Southern cotton to England, and return with the North’s “cash crop” – cheap labor… </li></ul>
    11. 11. I, Um… Know Nothing [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The rise of immigration also increased the anti-immigrant feeling; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly in areas where immigrants were competing with native-born Americans for jobs; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nativists were members of an underground movement, the “Know Nothing” Party ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Know Nothings wanted an end to immigration; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They became the American Party in a attempt to appeal to the mainstream, gaining 1 million members by 1855; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The party imploded prior to the Civil War with internal conflict… </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Slave sale advertisement.
    13. 13. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>The trade begins in the mid-1400s when the Portuguese and Spanish start slaving in Africa; </li></ul><ul><li>The trade will continue through the US Civil War (though technically the slave trade is outlawed in 1808)… </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Three reasons all combined: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor shortage (not enough workers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism (feelings of superiority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greed </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Where to? Where from? North America South America Africa 5% 60% 35% 65% 30% 5%
    16. 16. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Figure: Estimated Annual Exports of Slaves from Western Africa to the Americas, 1500–1700. Source: John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 118.
    17. 17. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>By the numbers; </li></ul><ul><li>30 million taken from their homes; </li></ul><ul><li>10 million die during capture; </li></ul><ul><li>10 million die during crossing; </li></ul><ul><li>10 million sold into slavery… </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The Crossing </li></ul><ul><li>Canary Islands to the Windward Islands; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships were attacked by pirates often; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip was very long… </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Conditions on the slavers; </li></ul><ul><li>Crowded, unsanitary conditions; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves rode on planks 66” x 15”, with only 20” of headroom ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males chained together in pairs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept apart from children and women; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High mortality rates… </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] Plan of the British Slave Ship Brookes , 1788. This plan, which may undercount the human cargo the Brookes carried, shows how tightly Africans were packed aboard slave ships.
    21. 21. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Slaves were fed twice daily; </li></ul><ul><li>Poor and insufficient diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable pulps, stews, and fruits; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denied meats or fish; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 people eating from one bucket; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwashed hands spread disease… </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Atlantic Slave Trade [ Topic 05: The Road to War ]
    23. 23. A “Dred”ful Decision [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Dred Scott was a slave who was taken by his master to Illinois, a free state; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They returned to Missouri, and Scott sued for his freedom, claiming his time in Illinois had made him free; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Scott is not a United States citizen and thus has no right to sue; as a Missouri resident, Illinois law does not apply to him; as a slave, he was property, just like a mule, and the government had no right to deprive his master of property without a good reason.” </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. A “Dred”ful Decision [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>The Scott decision helped to boost business on the Underground R.R.; </li></ul>
    25. 25. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Southern Claim: Northern slaveholders were much crueler to their slaves than Southerners were ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1600s & Beyond… in North, slaves were considered profitable imports to be sold to South or disposable assets to work on northern farms until worn out from work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In south, slaves viewed as permanent work force, laborers to be protected, nurtured, & developed… </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Northern treatment of slaves…records indicate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After slave rebellions or as punishment – most were hanged, some quartered, drawn, slow-roasted over open fire for 8 hrs , etc; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1991, Howard Univ. in Washington studied bones from ‘African Burial Ground’ in NY City… discovered arm & leg bones of 20 yr olds… were misshapen, indicating they had been worked to death… </li></ul>
    27. 27. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Southern claim: NY city was capital of slave trade—even after outlawed; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of 500,000 African slaves transported to Southern plantations came in Northern-owned ships ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island family (the Browns) made so much $$$; they became major donors to Rhode Island College; later renamed Brown College; and today is known as ivy league school of Brown University… </li></ul>
    28. 28. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Southern claim: slavery was less cruel in the south…southern slaves lived much like free blacks—and whites; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many slave owners & pastors held view that slavery was ordained in the Bible & that it was the Christian duty of slaveholders to take care of “their people.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mortality rate of slaves in south much lower than that in Caribbean; </li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to claims of abolitionists, slaves allowed to marry… </li></ul>
    29. 29. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Slave labor has also been mischaracterized as lasting from “sun-up to sun-down”; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research indicates: cotton plantation slaves worked aver. Of 58 hr/wk (verses 72 hr/wk for British textile workers or 60 hr/wk for Northern commercial farmers); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most worked only ½ day on Sat. & not at all on Sun; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all slaves were field hands ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled workers such as millers, carpenters, furniture makers, blacksmiths, etc; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typically could move freely about countryside, hunting w/ firearms, visiting farms, hiring selves out for money, etc… </li></ul>
    30. 30. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Slaves & masters lived side by side; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave cabins often built just yards from owner’s house; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave owners served as plantation doctors, wives served as physician’s assistants to slaves; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do the following statistics mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of white southerners owned slaves; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/10 of 1% owned more than 200; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5% of 4 million slaves living in south in 1860 actually worked & lived on large plantations… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ They mean that the typical southern slaveholder was more likely to be working in the field beside his slaves than sitting on the verandah sipping a mint julep.” </li></ul>
    31. 31. Slavery… A Southern Perspective [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>It is true that there were some large slaveholders in the south; </li></ul><ul><li>3rd largest in SC – William Ellison; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned more than 50 slaves; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed wealth more than $65,ooo..higher than 90% of neighbors; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staunch supporter of Confederate cause…one son left for artillery unit, switched from cotton to production of foodstuffs needed to feed Confederate Army; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He was black…and a former slave… </li></ul>
    32. 32. Lincoln vs. Douglas [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] In the BLUE corner… Illinois State Senator 5’ 1” Stephen Douglas In the RED corner… Illinois State Rep. 6’ 4” Abraham Lincoln POW! WHAM!
    33. 33. The Lincoln-Douglas Debate [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Lincoln and Douglas were debating for a seat in the US Senate; </li></ul><ul><li>Their strategy was simple; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas tried to make Lincoln look like an abolitionist, which he was not; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln tried to make Douglas look like he was pro-slavery, which he was not; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Douglas won the election ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But Lincoln won a national reputation… </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Spark # 01: John Brown [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>John Brown, an abolitionist, believed that he had been commanded by God to free the slaves; </li></ul><ul><li>On Oct. 16, 1859, Brown led a group of 18 white and black men on a raid of the arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After killing the mayor and taking some hostages, Brown’ gang was surrounded by militia and US troops commanded by Robert E. Lee… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown and five others were captured, the rest killed; Brown went to trial and was hanged … </li></ul>
    35. 35. Spark # 02: Lincoln’s Election [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Lincoln was nominated by the Republican Party for the Election of 1860; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Republicans believed Lincoln would appeal to the North and the West; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas was the official Democratic nominee; however, a splinter group supported a man by the name of John Breckenridge; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln did not win the popular vote; but easily won the electoral vote, and became President … </li></ul>
    36. 36. Spark # 02: Lincoln’s Election [ Topic 05: The Road to War ] <ul><li>Before he could even take office seven Southern states had already pulled out of the Union; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the fighting started, they were followed by four more… </li></ul></ul>As the sun rose on the morning of April 12, 1861, secessionist guns fired on Fort Sumter, in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina. The United States Civil War had begun.

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