Topic 01.In The Beginning


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Topic 01.In The Beginning

  1. 1. United States History Topic 01: In the Beginning… Mr. Michael Meechin Celebration High School Social Science Dept.
  2. 2. The Tough Questions [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Where did “man” come from? </li></ul><ul><li>In the social sciences, the bigger the question, the bigger the debate to the answer; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular theories that answer the origin of “man”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man originated in Africa @ 7,000,000 years ago [which is actually debated to between 5 – 9 million years] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of African apes broke into three groups; modern gorillas, modern chimps, and the human; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Big Bang” theory; a God created Earth </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Tough Questions [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>How did “man” get to the modern United States? </li></ul><ul><li>H. erectus was the first species of man to move from the African continent; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The argument of timeframes and pathways of man will always be debated; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted theory: man crossed over the land bridge 50,000 BCE… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Tough Questions [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>What was the prehistoric United States like when “man” arrived? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much like it is today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 15,000 years ago the American West looked much as Africa’s Serengeti Plains do today, with herds of elephants and horses pursued by lions and cheetahs… camels and giant sloth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- from Guns, Germs, and Steel </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Who Da’ Man? [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Who was the first to come to what is now the United States? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans have been here for thousands of years, and are the first modern humans to inhabit the continent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of Europeans, the Vikings were the first to come to North America; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remains have been found in Newfoundland as early as 1000 CE; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is believed to be an abandoned settlement with reasons unknown, probably conflict with Natives; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: Vikings came to find new fishing grounds – food’s influence on human migration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Men, the Myths, the Legends [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>In terms of modern Europeans, who was the first to come to the United States? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristoforo Colombo is credited with “discovering” the North American continent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much do you think you know about Columbus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. I know nothing at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. I love Columbus Day, who is he? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. I am a Columbus expert. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. A Dose of Reality [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Some historians believe that the English may have also been here before Columbus; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The theory is that heavy fishing forced sea exploration; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British used North American islands for fishing outposts… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What did people believe about the world? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Atlantic Ocean was dangerous, Europeans were fearful; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not because the world was flat, but because they were unsure that there was land to the west; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People need a reason to take a risk… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. A Dose of Reality [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>They get a reason in the 1400s; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans fighting the in Crusades came in contact with riches and spices; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They developed a taste for these goods; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices were very expensive and important… why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of refrigeration, made food taste better… </li></ul></ul></ul>Note Taking Update: a. Too Fast; b. Too Slow; c. Perfect
  9. 10. A Dose of Reality [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Navigation, technology, and motivation led to the exploration of the Atlantic; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation and technology: sailors could find latitude via the sky and discovered the compass; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation: came in the form of desire for spices, gold, and silver… </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Back to Columbus [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Columbus had a tough time convincing people to fund his voyage; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The trip west to Asia was too long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ship would run out of supplies and your crew would starve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscalculation of the size of Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus was finally funded by Spain; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He will make three trips to and from Europe, never setting foot in the United States… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Back to Columbus [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Columbus finds nothing in the Americas, besides Native peoples; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No gold, no spices, no China, no Japan; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He must justify the money spent on his voyages; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, he lies… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He tells Spain that he has found gold mines and that the Natives will be easy to conquer; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus dies poor and impoverished; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He dies thinking that he had found Asia… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Reality of the Brutality [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] The Spanish, “after a while refused to walk any distance. They rode the backs of the Indians as if they were in a hurry or were carried in hammocks by Indians running relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings.” “ The Spaniards thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and cutting slices of them to test the sharpness of their blades. Two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot, they took the parrots, and for fun beheaded the boys.”
  13. 14. Columbus’ Importance [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Not because he discovered American, because he didn’t; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He did establish sustained contact with the West; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People now knew that there was something out there, what was it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans will keep coming to the Americas after Columbus; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He changes the world even if he is a loser… </li></ul></ul></ul>Note Taking Update: a. Too Fast; b. Too Slow; c. Perfect
  14. 15. Hernando Cortes [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Cortes, a conquistador, set sail against the order of the Spanish government; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set sail with two ships and roughly 600 men; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Cortes landed in Mexico he and his men were treated like Gods by the natives, because of the two-headed monster and the thunder stick ; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He will destroy the Aztecs by allying himself with conquered natives; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox was transmitted to the Aztecs and devastated the population… </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Reality of the Brutality [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] Account of Spanish massacre of the Aztecs… &quot;Having bided their time, having waited for an opportune moment, the Spaniards came forth to slay us.... They first struck a drummer; they severed both his hands and cut off his head, which fell to the ground some distance away.... They hacked at the shoulders of others, splitting their bodies open; or at their shanks, or at their thighs, or at their abdomens, breaking out their entrails, which dragged as they tried to run.... Some of us, playing dead, crawled in among the bodies of the slain and escaped, unless the Spaniards saw one breathe and stabbed him. The blood of the young warriors ran like water; it gathered in pools. A foul stench arose from and spread about the carnage.&quot;
  16. 17. The Role of Disease [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Disease was the major advantage for the Europeans in destroying the Natives; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was a secret weapon they did not know they had; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease did kill Europeans, but killed Natives mush quicker; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as a Virgin Soil Epidemic … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did the Europeans think about this? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They thought that this meant the natives were inferior and God wanted them dead; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They must become slaves of the Europeans… </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The Role of Disease [ Topic 01: In the Beginning… ] <ul><li>Natives had no real system of medicine, all magic; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They also had no concept of quarantine, which Europe had put in place… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of the Native American population in the Americas were dead within 100 years after 1492… </li></ul></ul>