Why was the British Government interested in the New World? Colonies meant land, power, raw materials. Colonists were a market for finished goods . Colonists could be taxed . The term used to describe this relationship was mercantilism . Mercantilism meant that the colony existed for the good of the mother country.
If you were a member of Parliament, how would you encourage colonization of new land? 1. Charter joint stock companies that limited risk 2. Create the headright system that gave land matching grants.
The British Create a Colonial Empire Jamestown 1607 (Virginia) • Private funding of colonies not enough • Previous attempts fail (poor land choice, bad timing, no leadership) • Colony funded through a Joint Stock Company (Virginia Company) • The “Starving Time” • Captain John Smith • John Rolfe
Pilgrims 1620 • Came to America in search of religious freedom • Considered themselves loyal British subjects . • Landed outside of the land granted to them Are they still under the control of England? • Set precedence for much of what will become American government and culture • Mandatory Education • Religion • Government (Mayflower Compact) • Proved that colonies in the new World could be successful.
What do the two have in common • Both had help from Native Americans • Both turned on Native Americans • Established English in North America • Encouraged more colonists • Both funded by a Joint Stock Company
How did people who couldn't afford land and berth come to the America? <ul><li>Indentured servants - Worked for seven years with no pay, then </li></ul><ul><li>became apprentices. </li></ul>2. Often young people .
How democratic was colonial America? Freedom of the Press - The trial and acquittal of John Peter Zenger on charges of libel set the stage for the first use of freedom of the press. This became a precedent in colonial trials and newspapers began to report news differently in the colonies than they did in England Freedom of religion -Roger Williams, William Penn and others that founded colonies dedicated to promoting religious freedom. -Elected legislatures existed in almost all colonies. -Town Hall meetings took place where citizens consulted on all manners of law.
- Mayflower Compact was an early sign of Democracy. It showed that government came from the will of the people and it set a precedent in the colonies. - Rugged nature of the colonists was one that did not take well to Being told what to do by a King (or anyone for that matter.) - Distance from England - They were 3000 miles away and grew accustomed to making decisions for themselves. How democratic was colonial America?
How was Colonial America undemocratic ? Slavery - was clearly undemocratic, except that most did not consider the slaves to be really human. Indentured Servitude was another relatively undemocratic fact of life, after all how can one sell himself as property. Ruled by a King - The fact was the the law was made by the King and the colonists had sworn their loyalty to him. The fact remains that up until the revolution most still considered themselves loyal to the King. Colonial existence was by its very nature undemocratic.
French & Indian War France and Great Britain continue ongoing war now over North America Great Britain turns its attention away Colonies to fight. “ Salutary Neglect” During this time the Colonies are able to make $$$ other ways Trade with other countries Increase own manufacturing
French & Indian War Both sides use Indians to fight England: Mohawk France: Huron England wins, Canada now belongs to England England now turns its attention back to Colonies- England feels colonies should pay for some of the war.
What did England do to anger the colonists? <ul><li>Proc. Of 1763 </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Act </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act </li></ul>All these acts were passed as a result of the French & Indian War
Proclamation of 1763 Settlers are moving further west as time passes, pushing the frontier westward England worries Americans are becoming too spread out and too distance from center of control (Becoming too “American” England wants to avoid conflict with Indians after Seven Years War England declares no settlement west of the Appilachia Mts..
Why does this upset the Colonists ? Proclamation of 1763
No Taxation Without... Who would be affected the most by this tax? How did the King plan on paying the debt form the war? 1. Sugar Act - New taxes on imports due to lack of income on present molasses duty, enforcement in admiralty courts. This is a Tariff 2. Stamp Act - forced to purchase stamps to place on printed items, cards, dice, liquor, legal documents. This is a Direct Tax
How did the Colonists respond to the new taxes?
How did the Colonists respond to the new taxes? 1. The Sons of Liberty , a revolutionary group, formed to protest English actions. 2. They attempted to air grievances about issues such as no taxation without representation but the King did not seem to listen. The Americans reacted by forming organized political groups such as Committees of Correspondence .
The Boston “Massacre” Group of out of work dock workers begin to taunt a group of soldiers Soldiers are able to work a second job if they choose Creates rivalry between colonists and troops over jobs. Mob begins to hurl rocks at troops-- for some reason the Troops fire – 5 colonists are killed. 1770
Anti-British activists use the incident to criticize England and the King The use of propaganda to sway the opinion of the public The Boston “Massacre” This event increases the animosity against the British
How did the Boston Tea Party become such a “rager”? Tea Act 1773 Parliament grants a monopoly of the American tea market to the East India Tea Company Colonists are forced to buy tea from one source. Hurts the colonial economy Sons of Liberty react with the Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773
Coercive or Intolerable? As punishment for the Tea Party, England passes set of laws known as the Coercive Acts (5 items) Closed Boston Harbor Nullified the colony’s charter (end of self government) Allowed colonists to be tried in courts in Canada and England
Extended Canada south into the Ohio River Valley (Quebec Act) “ Americans” call them Intolerable Acts Coercive or Intolerable? Issues the Quartering Act - Which placed troops in homes, mostly NY
“ The Die is Cast” <ul><li>King George said this. </li></ul><ul><li>What do think he meant???? </li></ul>
How did the Colonists react? First Continental Congress - Reaction to Acts of Parliament Purpose was to work things out between England and the Colonies. Boycott of goods, refuse to pay taxes Sons and Daughters of Liberty - Groups that protested and opposed England in many ways Thomas Paine - Common Sense Expression of the most radical colonists Many still wanted to make up with England (Tories)
Second Continental Congress Will assume the role of colonial government Names George Washington head of the Continental Army Will attempt to finance the war ($$$) Actually declare independence (Declaration of Independence) Create New Government (Articles of Confederation