Solar system classification

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Solar system classification

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  12. 12. Mercury<br />My<br />Venus<br />Very<br />Earth<br />Energetic<br />Mars<br />Mother<br />Jupiter<br />Just<br />Saturn<br />Served<br />Uranus<br />Us<br />Neptune<br />Nine<br />Pluto<br />Pizzas<br />
  13. 13. Your Parents’ Solar System<br />
  14. 14. Facts Are Not Knowledge<br />Memorization, not understanding<br />Factoids<br />Highlights differences<br />Little or no relevance<br />Little or no “big picture”<br />
  15. 15. The 21st Century Solar System<br />Sun<br />Rocky Planets<br />Asteroid Belt<br />Giant Planets<br />Kuiper Belt<br />Oort Cloud<br />
  16. 16. Families of the Solar System<br />Classes of similar objects<br />Size<br />Composition<br />Orbit size<br />Orbit shape<br />Orbit inclination<br />Moons<br />Rings<br />
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  20. 20. Hollywood’s View of the Asteroid Belt<br />
  21. 21. 960 million miles<br />Hundreds of thousands of asteroids …<br />… about a million miles apart!<br />Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt<br />
  22. 22. Sizes of the Giant Planets and Earth<br />
  23. 23. Kuiper Belt<br />
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  26. 26. Oort Cloud<br />Billions of icy minor planets – comet nuclei<br />Roughly spherical out to 50,000 AU<br />Predicted by Jan Oort<br />Explains long-period comets<br />
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  28. 28. Sedna<br />
  29. 29. Sedna<br />Orbit 76 – 840 AU<br />Very red color<br />Outer Kuiper Belt?<br />Inner Oort Cloud?<br />Planet at 70 AU?<br />
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  31. 31. Families of the Solar System<br />Classification<br />Structure of the solar system<br />Similar objects lie in similar regions<br />Clues to solar system formation and evolution<br />
  32. 32. Rocky Planets<br />Giant Planets<br />
  33. 33. Sun<br />Rocky Planets<br />Asteroid Belt<br />Giant Planets<br />Kuiper Belt<br />Oort Cloud<br />
  34. 34. Sun<br />Mercury Venus Earth Mars<br />Asteroid Belt <br />Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune<br />Kuiper Belt<br />Oort Cloud<br />
  35. 35. Science<br />May View Established Models<br />As Basic <br />Justified Standards Until New<br />Knowledge Bears<br />Out Changes<br />
  36. 36. Sometimes<br />My Very Energetic Mother<br />Also Boils <br />Jumbo Shrimp Using Nine<br />Kettles Bubbling<br />Over Coals<br />
  37. 37. The Inevitable Question …<br />
  38. 38. Why is Pluto No Longer a Planet?<br />
  39. 39. Planet Pluto<br />January 23, 1930<br />January 29, 1930<br />
  40. 40. The Incredible Shrinking Planet<br />Lowell’s Planet X – 7 times Earth<br />1940’s – 1 times Earth<br />1980 – 0.1 times Earth<br />1985 – 0.002 times Earth<br />
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  42. 42. Double Take: Charon<br />1978 – James Christy (USNO) observations to refine Pluto’s orbit<br />Notices elongated images, deduces moon<br />1985 – Charon occults Pluto, confirms existence<br />Refined sizes and masses – tiny<br />
  43. 43. Pluto/Charon<br />
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  45. 45. Umbriel<br />Mimas<br />Ariel<br />Iapetus<br />Hygeia<br />Miranda<br />Proteus<br />Pallas<br />Tethys<br />Dione<br />Vesta<br />Oberon<br />Ceres<br />Charon<br />Rhea<br />Titania<br />Enceladus<br />Io<br />Mercury<br />Europa<br />Moon<br />Triton<br />Titan<br />Ganymede<br />Callisto<br />Pluto<br />
  46. 46. Kuiper Belt<br />1930 – Leonard mentions possibility of trans-Plutonian objects<br />1943 – Kenneth Edgeworth postulates objects beyond Pluto<br />1951 – Gerard Kuiper predicts that a massive Pluto would disperse small objects into a belt<br />1980 – Fernandez predicts ‘comet belt’ that resembles what was eventually found<br />
  47. 47. Kuiper Belt Objects<br />1992 – Jewitt & Luu find QB1<br />Distance of 42 AU<br />First (third?) object discovered in the Kuiper Belt<br />
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  49. 49. Kuiper Belt<br />
  50. 50. More and more KBOs<br />Large searches for KBOs ensued<br />Hundreds discovered within a decade<br />Over 1200 discovered so far<br />Over 70,000 predicted<br />diameters > 100 km<br />orbits 30-50 AU<br />
  51. 51. Pluto Defenders<br />Pluto is different from the KBOs<br />Pluto is bigger than the KBOs<br />Pluto has a moon, Charon<br />Wrong!<br />
  52. 52. Pluto/Charon orbits within Kuiper Belt<br />
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  54. 54. KBO Size Comparison<br />
  55. 55. Sidebar: Is the Moon a Moon?<br />Earth<br />Moon<br />
  56. 56. Binary KBOs<br />About 10% of KBOs are binaries<br />
  57. 57. Eris & Dysnomia (2003 UB313)<br />
  58. 58. Easterbunny<br />Eris & Dysnomia<br />Santa & Rudolph<br />
  59. 59. Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt<br />Orbit similar to KBOs<br />Size similar to KBOs<br />KBO companions common<br />Composition similar to KBOs<br />
  60. 60. Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt<br />Orbit similar to KBOs<br />Size similar to KBOs<br />KBO companions common<br />Composition similar to KBOs<br />Pluto has found its family!!<br />
  61. 61. IAU Definition – August 2006<br />IAU defines “planet”<br />Orbits the Sun<br />Upper mass limit<br />not massive enough to produce fusion<br />Deuterium fusion occurs at about 15x Jupiter’s mass<br />Lower mass limit<br />Massive enough for gravity to make it spherical<br />About 500 miles in diameter<br />Dominates its orbit<br />Dwarf planets meet 1, 2, 3, but not 4<br />
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  63. 63. Other Planetary Systems?<br />Solar system alone is category of one<br />???<br />
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  69. 69. Beta Pictoris<br />
  70. 70. We Are Not Alone<br />Lots of dust disks found<br />Proplyds – proto-planetary disks<br />Kuiper Belt sized and larger<br />Some substructure seen<br />
  71. 71. Planets around Other Stars<br />Cannot see directly (yet)<br />Detect via gravitational pull on star<br />Wobble<br />Periodic shift of spectral lines<br />Monitor for many years (several orbits)<br />Giant planets detectable<br />
  72. 72. Planets around Other Stars<br />Current count (May 2006)<br />162 planetary systems<br />188 planets<br />19 multiple planet systems<br />At least 15% of sun-like stars have planets<br />

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