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# 8th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 8

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### 8th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 8

1. 1. 8 th Grade Chapter 1 Lesson 8 Pgs. 58-63 For Student Use Only
2. 2. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Asteroids, Comets and Meteoroids all travel through space. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bode’s Law: Mathemtical Formula published in 1772 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bode’s Law: used to find the distance between planets. It found that there should be a planet between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On Jan. 1, 1801 an Italian Astronmer discovered the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul></ul>
3. 3. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Asteroid Belt: Located between Mars and Jupiter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Italian Astronomer that discovered the asteroid belt, named it Ceres. (He thought it was a small planet.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was soon found that Ceres was too small to be a planet and there were many other smaller objects around Ceres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asteroids are tiny “planets” or tiny chunks of rock </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Asteroids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most asteroids traveling through the asteroid belt are grouped in clusters and have their own orbits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can sometimes crash into each other when their orbits are changed by gravitational pulls from other planets or asteroids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can come free of the asteroid belt when the gravitational pull of a planet pulls them out of orbit. </li></ul></ul>
5. 5. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Asteroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most asteroids are not round like planets. They are oblong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some asteroids are not in the asteroid belt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter’s Ateroids- Trojan asteroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apollo Asteroids- Follow individual paths and come close to Earth </li></ul></ul></ul>
6. 6. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Comets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tycho Brahe: discovered asteroids were not “invading” the Earth’s atmosphere, but were a natural part of the Solar System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newton said comets follow the same rules of motion as the planets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edmund Halley proved Newton was correct by calculating the orbit of a comet and predicting when it would be visible again to Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This comet is called Halley’s Comet </li></ul></ul></ul>
7. 7. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Comet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comets have different parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus: The frozen chunk of ice at the head of the comet. (It is a dirty snowball.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coma: The gas and dust cloud created from the melting nucleus as it gets closer to the sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tail: The dust and gas particles that are wafted away from the coma in a blazing stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Wind- (the stream of charged particles from the sun) help create the comets tail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
8. 8. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Comet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comet means “long-haired star” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “comet” because of the tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tail usually has different colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dust- glows a yellow color (reflects sunlight) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas- glows a bluish tint (reacts with the solar winds) </li></ul></ul></ul>
9. 9. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Comet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comets orbits are VERY ellipitical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of time it takes for a comet to complete an orbit is called a period . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enck’s Comet- has a period of 3 years and 4 monthes (shortest) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Halley’s Comet- has a period of 76 years. Last appeared in 1986 </li></ul></ul></ul>
10. 10. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Meteoroid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteoroid- a smaller chunk of rock (or other space debris) than an asteroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meteors- Meteoroids that enter Earth’s atmosphere (AKA. Shooting stars)- they usually burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meteor Shower- when Earth passes through a cluster of meteoroids- Named for the constellations they appear to radiate from </li></ul></ul></ul>
11. 11. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Meteoroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some meteors hit the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These meteors are too large to completely burn up in our atmosphere and will hit the Earth’s surface and become part of the soil. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These meteors that hit the earth’s surface are called Meteorites ! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorites are usually very small. </li></ul></ul></ul>
12. 12. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids <ul><li>Meteoroid Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest intact meteorite was found in Africa and weighed 66 tons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest meteorite hit near Flagstaff, Arizona (thousands of years ago) and was probably 650 ft. in diameter and created a crater 4000 ft. deep. </li></ul></ul></ul>