USDLA 2013 - Lessons Learned from Research of AP Online
Sharon Johnston, Ed.D.ConsultantMichael Barbour, Ph.D.Wayne State UniversityLessons Learned FromResearch of AP Online
Learning OutcomesLearning OutcomesParticipantswill have data showing efficacy of AP online.will have data showing how online AP servesminoritieswill gain insights into student perspectives inlearning online compared to traditionalclassroom.will be able to access research in AmericanJournal of Distance Education.
Measuring Success: ExaminingAchievement and Perceptionsof Online Advanced Placement StudentsPurpose of ResearchPurpose of ResearchTo determine if the online AP studentsare as successful as their peers intraditional environments.
ResearchQuestions1. How do AP students enrolled in FLVS coursesperform compared to non-FLVS students in theState of Florida and nationally?2. What are some of the characteristics ofstudents that participate in AP courses offeredby FLVS?3. How do AP students enrolled in FLVS coursesperceive their online AP course compared totheir face-to-face courses?Research Questions
MethodologyMethodology QuantitativeQuantitativeCollege Board data, FLVS dataCollege Board data, FLVS data QualitativeQualitativeSurvey AP students 2011 189Survey AP students 2011 189Students who had taken AP online and inStudents who had taken AP online and intraditional classrooms in 2011 48traditional classrooms in 2011 48Student Interviews 5Student Interviews 5
Lessons Learned from theLessons Learned from theQuantitative Research?Quantitative Research? 1. AP Online is as effective as traditional.1. AP Online is as effective as traditional. 2. AP Online with FLVS shows higher2. AP Online with FLVS shows higherachievement than AP in traditionalachievement than AP in traditionalclassrooms in Florida.classrooms in Florida. 3. AP online matches national average in3. AP online matches national average in5s, and surpasses results from traditional5s, and surpasses results from traditionalFlorida classrooms by over 5% each yearFlorida classrooms by over 5% each yearQ1
Giving AP Access to theGiving AP Access to theUnderservedUnderserved Research Q2FLVS gives priority enrollment to studentsin minority, low performing, andeconomically disadvantaged schools.“In the class of 2011, the numbers of traditionallyunderserved minority students participating andsucceeding in AP continued to increase. However,these students remain underrepresented . . . .”College Board, 2012
2011 DemographicsMinorityMinority WhiteWhite Not StatedNot StatedFLVSFLVSN=2,694N=2,694studentsstudents45.99 %45.99 % 54.0154.01 0%0%FloridaFlorida(not online)(not online)N=181,934N=181,93447.25%47.25% 48.78%48.78% 3.97%3.97%NationalNational(mostly not(mostly notonline)online)N=1,926,204N=1,926,20439.26 %39.26 % 57.37 %57.37 % 3.37%3.37%Research Q2The data indicate that AP online is effective in increasing AP minorityparticipation.
Open EnrollmentOpen Enrollment Research Q2At FLVS students enter AP withoutbarriers such as test score requirements,teacher recommendations, minimumgrade point average, or honors classes.
Lessons Learned fromLessons Learned fromDemographic data?Demographic data? 1. AP online is a valuable resource for1. AP online is a valuable resource forproviding access to ALL students.providing access to ALL students. 2. AP online with FLVS does attract2. AP online with FLVS does attractminority participation.minority participation.Q2
Reasons stated fortaking AP with FLVSResearch Q246% Scheduling conflict or coursewas not offered at their brick-and-mortar school18% AP with FLVS because theypreferred FLVS over taking the coursevia bricks-and-mortar
Anytime accessFlexibility in pacingMost frequent reason given forpreferring FLVSResearch Q2
FLVS online resourcesResearch Q3Over 50% of students stated that onlineresources benefited their performance on theAP ExamThree most valuable resources:AP exam reviewsElluminate sessionsInteractive self checks
Research Q3Time spent on AP courseweeklyFLVS Brick-and-Mortar1-3 hours 13% 15%4-6 hours 40% 33%7-10 hours 28 % 35%More than 10 hours 19 % 17%Differences in studytime
Difficulty level57% of the students said that it is easier or about the samein their FLVS course, while 43% said that it is harder ormuch harder.Quality71% of the students perceived their FLVS course as thesame or better quality as brick-and-mortar.EngagementThe five students interviewed felt that their brick-and-mortarcourses were more engaging because of class discussions,debates, Socratic seminars, and role playing.Research Q3Comparing the twodelivery modes
Lessons Learned fromLessons Learned fromStudent Perceptions?Student Perceptions? 1. AP online: Schedule conflicts and access1. AP online: Schedule conflicts and accessto courses not offered at physical site.to courses not offered at physical site. 2. Preferring FLVS: Anytime access and2. Preferring FLVS: Anytime access andflexibilityflexibility 3. No significant difference in study time.3. No significant difference in study time. 3. Online resources valued.3. Online resources valued. 4. Quality of courses in both delivery modes4. Quality of courses in both delivery modessimilar, but traditional allows more Socraticsimilar, but traditional allows more SocraticdiscussionsdiscussionsQ3
Research ConclusionsOnline and face-to-face classroom deliverymodels can meet the academic needs of studentsenrolled in AP courses.The impact and data of allowing students to optout of taking AP exams as a result of academic,social or economic pressures is a subject forfurther study.Online programs should continue to find ways toengage students with open-ended dialogue andthe Socratic method of teaching and learning.
Socratic discussions in yourSocratic discussions in youronline program?online program? How often does your program offer open-How often does your program offer open-ended, Socratic discussions?ended, Socratic discussions? Once a month?Once a month? Once a grading period?Once a grading period? Once a semester?Once a semester?
Question---How can online instruction bedesigned to engage studentsin meaningful discussions andopen-ended questioning?
Research article: “Measuring Success:Examining Achievement and Perceptionsof Online Advanced PlacementStudents”Published in American Journal ofDistance Education, Vol. 27, No 1, March2013.