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Prof. Haci-Halil Uslucan: Religious diversity in Germany. The perception and acculturation of Muslims in Germany

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International conference "Integration Challenges in Radicalizing World", 29-30 November 2016 in Tallinn, Estonia. More presentations: www.misakonverents.ee

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Prof. Haci-Halil Uslucan: Religious diversity in Germany. The perception and acculturation of Muslims in Germany

  1. 1. Seite 1 Understanding and measuring Integration of migrants 1 Religious diversity in Germany: The perception and acculturation of muslims in Germany Tallinn, 29.11.2016 Prof. Dr. Haci-Halil Uslucan Scientific Director of the Center for Turkish Studies and Research on Integration Professor for Modern Turkish Studies at the University of Duisburg-Essen; Member of the Expert Commission on Migration and Integration of the German Foundations (SVR)
  2. 2. Seite 2 Understanding and measuring Integration of migrants 2 Program 1. Germany as a country of migration and integration 2. The measurement of integration 3. Some results on belonging and acceptance of migrants with focus on muslims 4. Conclusions and implications
  3. 3. Page 3 Germany as an integration country 81.4 m residents 10% foreigners 21% People with a migration background Source: Federal Statistical Office, 2016 of which: 3.7% Africa of which: 17% Asia, Oceania of which: 2.2% North and South America of which: 70% Europe
  4. 4. Page 4 Person with migration background, 2011 Hamburg Berlin Düsseldorf Stuttgart München Frankfurt 43,0% Stuttgart 38,6% München 34,3% Köln 32,3% Dresden 7,3% Berlin 24,1% Rostock 6,4%Hamburg 28,3% Bremen 26,5% Quelle: Zensusdaten 2011
  5. 5. Page 5 Trend in Germany: Super-diversity Quelle: Statistisches Bundesamt 2014, Ausländerzentralregister 1970 2014 Türkei 19% Polen 8% Italien 7% Rumänien 4% Griechenland 4% Kroatien 3% Serbien 3% Russland 3% Kosovo 2% Bulgarien 2% Österreich 2% Bosnien 2% Ungarn 2% Spanien 2% Niederlande 2% Portugal 2% Ukraine 2% Frankreich 2% Syrien 1% China 1% USA 1% Großbrit. 1% Irak 1% Vietnam 1% Mazedonien 1% Indien 1% Afghanistan 1% Marokko 1% Iran 1% Thailand 1% Tschechien 1% Kasachstan 1% Pakistan 1%Slowakei 1% Sonstige 15%
  6. 6. Page 6 Religious affiliation in Germany Source: Federal Statistical Office, 1974, 1990, 2013; Religious Studies Media and Information Service 2013; Haug/Müssig/Stichs 2009; own diagram Religious affiliation over time: 1970, 1987 and 2011 Includes other religious affiliations with percentage of total population (2011): - Muslim approx. 5.0% - Non-denominational approx. 1.9% - Orthodox approx. 1.8% - Esoteric approx. 1.2% - Buddhist approx. 0.3% - Hindu approx. 0.1% - Jewish approx. 0.1% 49 42 31 45 43 31 6 15 38 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1970 1987 2011 protestant catholic undenominational/others/no response
  7. 7. Seite 7 Understanding and measuring Integration of migrants 7 II. The measurement of integration Types of measuring Integration 1. Migrants vs. host population (attitudes, values, competencies etc.) 2. Migrants in region 1 vs. Migrants in region 2 or with the average nationwide index (how successful is a specific commune? ) 3. Migrant group X at t 1 vs. migrant group X at t 2 (how does integration progress over time?)
  8. 8. Page 8 Integration as defined by the Expert Council is equal-opportunity participation in the key areas of social life.
  9. 9. Seite 9 Understanding and measuring Integration of migrants 9 Main dimensions of integration • structural • cultural Integration • social • emotional/identificatory
  10. 10. Page 10 III. Some results on belonging and acceptance of migrants and muslims SVR's Integration Barometer 2016: Methodological approach  Nationwide telephone interviews (survey period from March to August 2015)  Respondents: 1,333 without a migration background, 4,063 with a migration background (total: 5,396)  Higher numbers of participants with a migration background makes it possible to differentiate perceptions between the individual groups of origin  Adjusted to real population ratios by weighting factors  Respondents selected randomly  Multi-linugal survey
  11. 11. Page 11 Respondents by group of origin Group of origin N in % without a migration background 1,333 24.7 with a migration background 4,063 75.3 ….. Spät-/Aussiedler 999 18.5 ….. Turkey 1,003 18.6 ….. EU27 1,037 19.2 ….. "rest of the world" 1,024 19.0 Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer
  12. 12. Page 12 The SVR's Integrations Climate Index: stable integration climate with minor differences between groups of origin SVR's Integrations Climate Index (ICI) 2015 (by respondents' group of origin) very negative (0) to very positive (100) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 65.4 67.1 68.6 62.7 71.5 71.0 71.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 without a migration background with a migration background Spät-/ Aussiedler Turkey EU ≤ 2000 EU > 2000 rest of the world
  13. 13. Page 13 Four areas of integration: community, labour market, social ties and education Integration climate in the 2015 sub-areas (by respondents' group of origin) very negative (0) to very positive (100) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 61.9 67.6 74.3 57.6 69.5 73.1 71.7 60.3 64.7 65.5 64.2 56.4 72.2 74.0 76.0 63.9 71.1 72.7 72.9 67.4 72.,7 71.2 74.2 66.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 community labour market social ties education without a migration background Spät-/Aussiedler Turkey EU ≤ 2000 EU > 2000 rest of the world
  14. 14. Page 14 Belonging to society: ancestry hardly plays a role "In your opinion, how important is it to have German ancestors to belong to society?" (by respondents' group of origin) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 10 15 11 11 18 8 15 24 13 21 21 12 42 26 33 29 33 45 33 34 42 39 28 35 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% rest of the world EU>2000 EU<2000 Turkey Spät-/Aussiedler without a migration background very important fairly important fairly unimportant not important
  15. 15. Page 15 Belonging to society: Germany is not perceived as a 'Club of Christians' "In your opinion, how important is it to be Christian to belong to society?" (by respondents' group of origin) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 16 15 16 10 24 10 22 28 22 21 26 17 32 28 28 22 30 39 30 28 33 46 20 34 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% rest of the world EU>2000 EU<2000 Turkey Spät-/Aussiedler without a migration background very important fairly important fairly unimportant not important
  16. 16. Page 16 Belonging to society: citizenship generally viewed as important "In your opinion, how important is it to have German citizenship to belong to society?" (by respondents' group of origin) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 36 25 24 21 39 30 34 32 21 27 38 34 18 23 28 23 12 24 12 20 26 29 11 11 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% rest of the world EU>2000 EU<2000 Turkey Spät-/Aussiedler without a migration background very important fairly important fairly unimportant not important
  17. 17. Page 17 Agreement across all groups: successful participation in the labour market is a key criterion for belonging "In your opinion, how important is it to have a permanent job to belong to society?" (by respondents' group of origin) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 62 61 58 63 70 51 33 32 33 29 25 38 4 5 7 5 4 8 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% rest of the world EU>2000 EU<2000 Turkey Spät-/Aussiedler without a migration background very important fairly important fairly unimportant not important
  18. 18. Page 18 Islamic religious instruction: broad-based approval Acceptance of (Islamic) religious instruction (by respondents' group of origin) Source: SVR's 2016 Integration Barometer 47 32 46 58 48 46 31 41 27 25 30 32 9 14 14 10 12 13 13 13 12 7 10 10 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% "Religion should be an optional subject at school." 36 29 33 57 30 31 36 31 30 25 29 34 11 19 21 9 24 22 17 20 15 8 18 13 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% fullly agree rather agree rather disagree do not agree at all "Islamic religious instruction should be an optional subject at schools." EU>2000 without a migration background Spät-/Aussiedler Turkey EU<2000 rest of the world
  19. 19. Page 19 Community: widespread rejection of Roma Unwanted neighbours by respondents' group of origin 17% 18% 14% 16% 51% 6% 8% 14% 19% 44% 24% 12% 6% 19% 59% 16% 16% 15% 21% 52% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% muslim family family on social welfare Aussiedler family from Russia family with many children roma family without a migration background Spät-/Aussiedler Turkey EU27 Source: SVR's 2014 Integration Barometer
  20. 20. Seite 20 Understanding and measuring integration of migrants 20 Main discourse lines in the media • Strategy of exclusion: Muslims described as different and as not belonging to European or German Culture; Representing “the other”. • Fear of Islam and associating Islam with terror, violence and aggression. • Dichotomizing between Islam and Democracy and Human rights or Islam and the Enlightenment. • “The counter-discourse”; appeal for a constructive dialogue with Islam and statements against discrimination of Muslims; Islam as a part of European/German culture (Halm 2012).
  21. 21. Seite 21 Understanding and measuring integration of migrants 21 IV. Conclusions and implications Main aspect of a successful social integration: Guarantee the equal access and equal chances in every branches of society, especially with regard to the job market, residential market, education, policy, art, sports etc. Integration shortcomings are seldomly an individual or motivational problem Muslim migrants have to do their homework (learning the German language, supporting the school careers of their children; Rate of Muslim pupil at the age of 6 to 22, who refuse to take part at sport education or swim courses vary between 2 and 7 percent (Foroutan, 2012). Exemplary good integration: sports.
  22. 22. Seite 22 Understanding and measuring integration of migrants 22 Conclusions and implications Constructing muslim identity: Muslims not always and not only migrants; nearly two million of them are German citizens Muslims live not in one, but several diverse communities simultaneously They have in the most cases multiple identities; they share characteristics and problems in everyday life with other groups or with the autochtonous, Concentration on faith by constructing identities neglects the impact of the social life conditions. More important: focusing on forms of invisible, glassy hindrances in institutions, which lead migrants to resignation and separation
  23. 23. Seite 23 Understanding and measuring Integration of migrants 23 Thank you for your attention ! Contakt: uslucan@zfti.de or haci.uslucan@uni-due.de www.uslucan.de

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