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Ethnic	Divide	in	the	Estonian	Labour	
Market
Kristjan	Kaldur
Institute of	Baltic	Studies
Introduction	/	Findings	from	previous	studies
Ethnic dividein	the Estonian	labour market
• Estonians and	other nationaliti...
Our analysis
Purpose:	analysethe scope,	possiblecauses and	consequences of	
ethnic segregation in	the Estonian	labour mark...
Structure
Individual-levelfactors (8)
E.g.	Estonian	language skills,	level
of	education,	age,	sex
Objective characteristic...
Ethnic gap in	the Estonian	labour market	(1)
11.9 10.5
8.6 7.7 6.7 5.4 4 3.5 4.1
10.8
13.3
9.6
7.6 6.8 6 5.4
19.7
17.8 16....
Ethnic gap in	the Estonian	labour market	(2)
	 Estonians	(%)	 Other	nationalities	(%)	
Share	of	managers	among	workers	 6,...
Major	risk	factors for ethnic minorities
• Estonian	language	skills	(low)
• Citizenship	(undetermined,	non-EU)
• Education...
Ethnic Divide in the Estonian Labour Market
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Ethnic Divide in the Estonian Labour Market

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Kristjan Kaldur

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Ethnic Divide in the Estonian Labour Market

  1. 1. Ethnic Divide in the Estonian Labour Market Kristjan Kaldur Institute of Baltic Studies
  2. 2. Introduction / Findings from previous studies Ethnic dividein the Estonian labour market • Estonians and other nationalities / ethnic minorities Gap between two ethnic groups increased after the restoration of independencein 1991 The situation is particularly acute in Ida-Viru county People of other nationalities do not constitute a single homogeneous group • No universal solutions
  3. 3. Our analysis Purpose: analysethe scope, possiblecauses and consequences of ethnic segregation in the Estonian labour market Combination of meta-analysis and statisticaldata analysis Systematic review of most relevant factors Meta-analysis: 15 studies (2000-2016) • monitorings of integratsioon, human development reports and other studies and articles that compare two ethnic groups Statistical data analysis: 6 databases • Labour forcesurvey, Work life survey, databases of Statistics Estonia, Monitoring of Integration 2015 survey, etc.
  4. 4. Structure Individual-levelfactors (8) E.g. Estonian language skills, level of education, age, sex Objective characteristics (9) E.g. Employment and unemployment rate, annual income Structural factors (7) E.g. Legal-political context, regionaal differences, discrimination Assessments / values (15) E.g. Perception of equality of opportunities, expectations of state intervention
  5. 5. Ethnic gap in the Estonian labour market (1) 11.9 10.5 8.6 7.7 6.7 5.4 4 3.5 4.1 10.8 13.3 9.6 7.6 6.8 6 5.4 19.7 17.8 16.5 15.7 16.9 13.1 9.8 6.7 8.2 19 23.4 17.9 15 12.4 10.3 8 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Estonians Other nationalities 3,469 3,848 4,557 5,637 6,639 7,596 7,197 7,020 7,550 8,709 9,412 10,010 2,766 3,138 3,907 4,544 5,611 6,308 5,812 5,509 6,083 7,014 7,395 8,249 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Estonians Other nationalities
  6. 6. Ethnic gap in the Estonian labour market (2) Estonians (%) Other nationalities (%) Share of managers among workers 6,9 3,9 Share of highly qualified specialists among workers 14,2 11,1 Share of managers among workers with higher education 15,2 8,6 Share of highly qualified specialists among workers with higher education 51,9 43,1 7.2 7 7.4 7.9 8.5 7.9 7.4 8.1 20.7 21.4 19.2 18.6 19 17.3 16.2 17.2 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Estonians Other nationalities
  7. 7. Major risk factors for ethnic minorities • Estonian language skills (low) • Citizenship (undetermined, non-EU) • Education (Basic or lower) • Age (15-24; 55+) • Sex (female) • Region (Ida-Viru county, Tallinn) • Cultural differences (lower mobility, gender stereotypes, limited social networks) • Attitudes (higher insecurity, negativity, higher demands for job offers, lower satisfaction with job) • Discrimination by employers (non-Estonian origin)

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