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Ways	of	self-positioning	through	the	reception	
of	news	among	Estonian	Russian-speakers
Marianne	Leppik
University	of	Tartu
Hypothesis:	migrants are	transnational
§ Transmigrant´s daily	lives	depend	on	multiple	and	
constant	interconnections	across	international	
borders	and	their	public	identities	are	configured	
in	relationship	to	more	than	one	nation-state	
(Glick-Schiller	et	al	1994)
§ Living	in	two	realities	at	the	same	time
§ Actors	exposed	to	a	set	of	social	expectations,	
norms	and	values	and	patterns	of	human	
interaction	that	are	shaped	by	more	than	one	
social,	economic,	and	political	system	(Levitt	
2011)	
§ Guarnizo (2000,	2003)	distinguishes	core	and	
expanded	transnational	practices
§ New	(imaginable)	diaspora?	Hybridization?
Subject	of	the	study
§ Empircalcase:	Russian	speaking	people	with	migrant	background	in	
Estonia	who	form	one	third	part	of	Estonia´s population	- internally
heterogenous group
§ Varied	political	will	and	skills	to	integrate	them
§ structural	separation	of	two	communities	as	a	legacy	from	the	
Soviet	system
§ High	linguistic,	as	well	cultural	and	psychological	barriers
§ Estonian	Russian-speakers	participate	in	the	various	mediascapes:		
Russian	TV,	local	Estonian	and	Russian	language	portals,	press,	radio,		
social	networks,	global	TV	ja	news	portals
§ Ad-hoc	information	gathering
§ Average	time	spent	by	watching	
TV	in	October 2016 was	3,41 h
§ Main	channels:	PBK,		RTR	
Planeta,		NTV	Mir	(TNS	Emor)
§ More diverse media use:	49%	
followregularlyInternational	
media (compared 25%	within
native Estonians)(EIA	2017)
§ 72%	use	social	networks (MMM	
2014)
§Media	use	is	widening	in	space	
and	thickening	in	time:	media
content	is	shaped	by	social	networks	
and	communication	partners	and	
members	of	thematic	communities
Purpose
§ Analyse the	interactions	between	ways	of	
interpretation	of	political	and	economic	journalistic	
production	and	peoples’	self-positioning	in	times	of	
acceleration	of	political	crisis:
§ How	the	topical	news	are	received	and	interpreted?
§ How	the	ways	of	local	embeddedness	contribute	into	the	
interpretative	practices	and	vice	versa,	how	the	
involvement	into	the	mediated	conflict	may	shape	the	
patterns	of	social,	political	and	cultural	involvement	and	
identity?
Data
§ Focus	groups	with	Russian-speakers	in	Estonia	(I,	II	and	III	
generation	immigrants)
§ Interviews,	blog	article,	analytical	stories
§ 3-4	longer	texts	(balanced)
§ 1	short		(selection	ot of	8)
§ Method:	text/discourse	analysis
Different	use	of	„we“
§ We	in	broader	sense:
§ It	is	important	to	me	(Ukrainian	crisis),	because	it	is	close	to	
us,	it	may	affect	us…we	all	are	slavic people	(W,	26)
§ I	totally	agree…above	all,	we	all	are	brothers	(M,	18)
§ We	here,	in	Estonia	(as	non-Estonians?)
§ We	have	this	quiet	state	here	and	then	something	like	this	
happen	(M,	31,	talking	about	school	shooting)
§ In	our	country	there	are	many	good	teachers	and	
specialists	(M,	18)
§ We	are	still	aliens	here…why	are	you calling	us	freaks	(M,	
31)
Media	content	interpretation	is	affected	by	
Russian	normalities
§ Talking	about	Crimea:
§ Moreover,	they	wanted	to	join	the	Russia	(M,	31)
§ Like	Boris	Yeltsin		gave	away…gambled	away	(M,28)
§ That´s	a	shame	(M,	31)
§ Russian	reception	frame:
§ Yes,	our	friend	Sergei	Petrov knows	how	and	who	organized	
the	protests	(M,	31)
§ He	is	one	of	the	richest	men	in	Russia.	Where	did	he	get	all	
his	money?	It	is	clear,	that	he	stole	it!	(M,	54)
Democratic	point	of	view:	operating	within	
EU/international	legal	system
§ Why	such	a	drastic	reaction	that	Arabs	cannot	live	in	Europe	any	more,	I	
mean,	you	let	them	in.	And	we	have	to	shut	down	the	mosques.	It	does	not	
seem	democratic to	me….Why	some	churches are	closed	and	some	not?	It	
does	not	correspond	to	the	EU	standards (M,	18)
§ What	I	really	liked	about	this	article	and	what	I	didn´t	know	before,	was	
related	to	Russian	international	obligations in	relation	to	Ukraine.	So	if	
Russia	says	in	international	level that	he	won´t	touch	Ukrainian	borders,	
then	he	shouldn´t	(M,	18)
§ Yesterday	I	read	that	Ukraine	might	ask	for	peacekeepers	from	EU	and	
United	Nations.	I	appreciate	this	initiative.	If	it	helps	to	stop	the	crisis	and	all	
parties	agree,	and	it	doesn´t	break	a	Minsk	agreement,	then	it	is	a	good	
initiative	(M,	38)
Experience	with	Western	civic	and	media	
culture	shapes	the	interpretation
§ But	in	Russia,	there	is such	a	culture	if	you	don´t	think	so	or	
similarly,	then	you	aren´t	patriot.	If	you	don´t	agree,	it´s	a	bad	
sign	(M,	25)
§ Well	Russian	media	has	a	government´s	support.	They	
cannot	be	adequate	or	independent.	You	cannot	expect	
independence	when	the	government	pays	the	salary…(M,	18)
§ It	seems	this	article	is	written	to	Russian	reader	to	concvince
him	that	Putin	is	(almost)	god,	who	does	everything	correctly	
(M,	18)
Postitioning non-conventional:
Lavrov at	Munich	Security	Conference
§ Not	laughing	at	the	high	level	meetings	as	
convention	
§ I	do	not	think	that	such	an	important	meeting	policy	
and	so	would	laugh.	Serious	people,	they	could	
somehow	respond	differently,	not	a	laugh	(W,	26)
§ Speaking	truth	as	convention	
§ My	personal	opinion	is	that	probably	there	are	Russian	
troops	in	Ukraine	...	I,	too	smile	when	I	hear	how	
Lavrov tries	earnestly	and	with	an	honest	view	say	that	
the	Russian	troops	are	not	there	(M,	37)
Change	of	positions
§ I	have	Estonian	passport,	but	I	feel	closer	to	other	nations
who	live	here...and	this	Slavic	element is	affecting	
development	of	culture,	science	and	so	on.	Lets	take	for	
example	our	Ida-Virumaa. (M,	31)
§ It	is	cut	like	this	to	show	Lavrov in	bad	light...it´s	not	very	
good	joke from	those	who	made	it...politics	are	also	people,	
they	can	laugh...what	I	meant to	say,	is	that	Lavrov cannot	lie,	
he´s	really	bad	in	this,	but	he	seriously	tries	(M,38)
Conclusions
§ Transnational reality
§ Conscious position
§ Change	of	positions	is	quick	and	refers	to	hybridity
§ Identity	is	transforming,	is	multicultural	and	negotiable	
on	everyday	basis	
§ Interpretationoriginate	from	Western	and	Russian	
normalities:	broad concepts
§ Cosmopolitalism?
Thank	you	for	the	attention!

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