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Workshop:	
  	
  
Russian	
  minori+es	
  and	
  Russian	
  migrants	
  
–	
  integra+on	
  challenges	
  and	
  perspec+ves	
  
in	
  Estonia	
  and	
  Norway	
  
Prof.	
  Raivo	
  Ve+k,	
  Tallinn	
  University,	
  Estonia	
  
Prof.	
  David	
  Lackland	
  Sam,	
  Bergen	
  University,	
  Norway	
  
Marianna	
  Makarova,	
  Tallinn	
  University	
  /	
  Integra7on	
  and	
  Migra7on	
  
Founda7on	
  Our	
  People,	
  Estonia	
  
Interna+onal	
  conference	
  „Integra+on	
  Challenges	
  in	
  a	
  Radicalizing	
  World“	
  
29	
  –	
  30	
  November	
  2016,	
  Tallinn,	
  Estonia	
  
Comparison of acculturation outcomes
among Russian minority and native majority
in Estonia and Norway
Raivo Vetik, Jüri Kruusvall
Tallinn University
 
Contents	
  
1.  Introduc3on	
  to	
  the	
  DIMA	
  (Determinants	
  of	
  Inclusive	
  
Migrant	
  Accultura3on)	
  project	
  	
  
2.  Theory:	
  different	
  defini3ons	
  of	
  the	
  research	
  object	
  and	
  
units	
  –	
  the	
  Chicago	
  school,	
  Berry	
  and	
  DIMA	
  project	
  
3.  Empirical	
  results:	
  comparison	
  of	
  adapta3on	
  outcomes	
  
among	
  different	
  subject	
  posi3ons	
  in	
  Estonia	
  and	
  Norway	
  
received	
  along	
  the	
  rela3onal	
  accultura3on	
  model.	
  	
  
	
  	
  
	
  
 
	
  1.	
  Introduc+on	
  
	
  
•  DIMA	
  is	
  financed	
  by	
  the	
  Norwegian	
  Research	
  Council	
  
•  Schedule:	
  September	
  2013	
  –	
  2016	
  
•  Estonian	
  team:	
  Raivo	
  Ve3k,	
  Maaris	
  Raudsepp,	
  Jüri	
  Kruusvall,	
  
Larissa	
  Kus-­‐Harbord,	
  Aune	
  Valk,	
  Marianna	
  Makarova,	
  Triin-­‐
Ketlin	
  Siska,	
  Marii	
  Haak,	
  Madli	
  Raudkivi	
  
•  Partners	
  at	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  Bergen:	
  David	
  Lacland	
  Sam,	
  
Valeria	
  Markova,	
  Arsenii	
  Markov	
  
31/01/17	
   4	
  
 
	
  
	
  
	
  
Objec+ves:	
  
•  to	
  compare	
  accultura3on	
  processes	
  and	
  outcomes	
  among	
  
Russians	
  and	
  na3ve	
  majority	
  in	
  Estonia	
  and	
  Norway	
  
•  to	
  contribute	
  to	
  the	
  larger	
  MIRIPS	
  project,	
  based	
  on	
  a	
  
psychological	
  model	
  of	
  Berry	
  
•  to	
  expand	
  the	
  psychological	
  model	
  by	
  introducing	
  the	
  field-­‐
theore3cal	
  (Bourdieu)	
  concept	
  ‘asymmetrical	
  accultura3on	
  
field’	
  	
  
 
Representa3ve	
  samples	
  in	
  Estonia	
  (n=1000)	
  and	
  Norway	
  (n=750)	
  
	
  
	
  
The	
  basic	
  concept	
  of	
  the	
  DIMA	
  project:	
  ‘structural	
  asymmetry	
  of	
  
the	
  accultura+on	
  field’:	
  	
  
‘Integra3on	
  strategy	
  requires	
  non-­‐dominant	
  groups	
  to	
  adopt	
  the	
  
basic	
  values	
  of	
  the	
  larger	
  society,	
  while	
  at	
  the	
  same	
  3me	
  the	
  
dominant	
  group	
  must	
  be	
  prepared	
  to	
  adapt	
  na+onal	
  ins+tu+ons	
  
(e.g.,	
  educa3on,	
  health,	
  labor)	
  to	
  beeer	
  meet	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  all	
  
groups	
  now	
  living	
  together	
  in	
  the	
  plural	
  society’	
  (Berry	
  1997).	
  
	
  
 	
  	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  2.	
  Different	
  defini+ons	
  of	
  the	
  
	
  	
   	
   	
  	
   	
   	
  research	
  objects	
  
	
  	
  
•  Gordon	
  (Chicago	
  school):	
  one-­‐direc3onal	
  sociological	
  model,	
  
in	
  which	
  adapta+on	
  of	
  migrants	
  in	
  the	
  form	
  of	
  assimila3on	
  
•  Berry	
  :	
  two-­‐direc3onal	
  psychological	
  model,	
  in	
  which	
  four	
  
types	
  of	
  accultura+on	
  aYtudes	
  among	
  minority/majority	
  
groups	
  
•  DIMA:	
  two-­‐direc3onal	
  rela3onal	
  model,	
  in	
  which	
  two	
  types	
  of	
  
social	
  boundary	
  construc+on	
  strategies	
  (bright	
  versus	
  
blurred;	
  difference	
  versus	
  sameness;	
  equality	
  versus	
  
inequality	
  etc.)	
  between	
  and	
  within	
  majority	
  and	
  minority	
  
groups.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
 
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Two	
  levels	
  of	
  social	
  boundary	
  construc+on:	
  	
  
1.	
  The	
  level	
  of	
  blocks	
  as	
  subject	
  posi+ons:	
  
Construc3on	
  of	
  social	
  boundaries	
  between	
  majority/minority	
  
blocks	
  as	
  wholes	
  
2.	
  The	
  level	
  of	
  segments	
  as	
  subject	
  posi+ons:	
  
Construc3on	
  of	
  social	
  boundaries	
  within	
  two	
  blocks	
  between:	
  	
  
a)  vindicatory/self-­‐cri3cal	
  segments	
  (majority	
  group)	
  
b)  accusive/self-­‐cri3cal	
  segments	
  	
  (minority	
  group)	
  
	
  
Differen3a3on	
  between	
  these	
  two	
  levels	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  concept	
  
‘asymmetrical	
  accultura3on	
  field’,	
  which	
  makes	
  such	
  
comparisons	
  meaningful.	
  
 
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  3.	
  Empirical	
  results	
  
	
  
The	
  DIMA	
  project	
  data	
  allows	
  comparisons	
  on	
  three	
  levels:	
  
	
  
•  the	
  level	
  of	
  na3ons	
  –	
  comparison	
  between	
  2	
  country	
  contexts	
  
(thus,	
  we	
  need	
  to	
  study	
  also	
  the	
  histories	
  of	
  inter-­‐cultural	
  
rela3ons,	
  respec3ve	
  laws,	
  policies	
  etc.)	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  paeerns	
  of	
  
the	
  rela3ons	
  between	
  blocks	
  and	
  segments	
  
•  the	
  level	
  of	
  blocks	
  –	
  comparison	
  between	
  2	
  majority	
  and	
  2	
  
minority	
  blocks	
  	
  
•  the	
  level	
  of	
  segments	
  –	
  comparison	
  between	
  4	
  self-­‐righteous	
  
and	
  4	
  self-­‐cri+cal	
  segments	
  
 	
  	
   	
   	
  	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Distribu+on	
  of	
  subject	
  posi+ons	
  in	
  the	
  two	
  na3ons	
  (cluster	
  
analysis	
  was	
  carried	
  out	
  on	
  the	
  baeery	
  of	
  ques3ons	
  on	
  social	
  
boundary	
  construc3on	
  regarding	
  ethnic	
  inequality	
  in	
  labor	
  market):	
  
Estonia	
  
•  Estonians:	
  vindicatory	
  sp	
  72%	
  and	
  self-­‐cri3cal	
  sp	
  28%;	
  
•  Russians:	
  accusive	
  sp	
  100%	
  (very	
  accusive	
  sp	
  57%	
  and	
  moderately	
  
accusive	
  sp	
  43%,	
  i.e.	
  no	
  self-­‐cri+cal	
  clusters	
  among	
  Russians!!!)	
  
Norway	
  
•  Norwegians:	
  vindicatory	
  51%	
  and	
  self-­‐cri3cal	
  49%;	
  	
  
•  Russians:	
  accusive	
  sp	
  68%	
  and	
  self-­‐cri3cal	
  32%.	
  	
  
Thus,	
  the	
  cross-­‐country	
  comparison	
  between	
  Estonia	
  and	
  Norway	
  
highlights	
  the	
  role	
  of	
  na+onal	
  context	
  in	
  accultura+on	
  processes!!!	
  
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Socio-­‐economic	
  adapta+on	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  (means	
  in	
  the	
  Lickert	
  scale	
  and	
  percents)	
  
	
  	
   Est	
   EstRus	
   Nor	
   NorRus	
  
	
  	
   vind	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
   vind	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
  
Life	
  sa+sfac+on	
   3,3	
   3,5	
   	
  	
   2,5	
   2,9	
   ***	
   4,0	
   3,9	
   	
  	
   3,5	
   4,0	
   ***	
  
Family	
  socio-­‐
economic	
  situa+on	
  
is	
  good	
  
56	
   45	
   	
  	
   37	
   46	
   	
  	
   66	
   75	
   	
  	
   75	
   86	
   	
  	
  
Socio-­‐economic	
  
discrimina+on	
  
2,4	
   2,8	
   ***	
   4,3	
   3,7	
   ***	
   3,4	
   3,6	
   	
  	
   3,1	
   2,6	
   ***	
  
Job	
  does	
  not	
  
correspond	
  to	
  educ.	
  
30	
   21	
   	
  	
   48	
   34	
   	
  	
   29	
   30	
   	
  	
   41	
   29	
   	
  	
  
Unemployed	
  during	
  
last	
  5	
  years	
  
17	
   17	
   	
  	
   20	
   12	
   	
  	
   14	
   17	
   	
  	
   41	
   45	
   	
  	
  
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Na+onal	
  and	
  ethnic	
  iden+fica+on	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  (means	
  in	
  the	
  Lickert	
  scale)	
  
	
  	
   Est	
   EstRus	
   Nor	
   NorRus	
  
vin
d	
  
s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
   vin
d	
  
s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
  
Belonging	
  to	
  
na+onal	
  society	
  
4,4	
   4,1	
   **
*	
  
3,1	
   3,6	
   **
*	
  
4,4	
   4,4	
   	
  	
   3.6	
   4.0	
   *	
  
Ethnic	
  iden+ty	
  
	
  	
  
4,5	
   4,3	
   	
  	
   4,4	
   4,2	
   **
*	
  
4,5	
   4,5	
   	
  	
   4.2	
   4.0	
   	
  	
  
 
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Inter-­‐cultural	
  adapta+on	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  (percents	
  and	
  means	
  in	
  the	
  Lickert	
  scale)	
  
	
  	
   Est	
   EstRus	
   Nor	
   NorRus	
  
vin
d	
  
s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
   vin
d	
  
s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
  
Feelings	
  towards	
  
the	
  ’other’	
  group	
  	
  
52	
   55	
   	
  	
   67	
   79	
   **
*	
  
53	
   58	
   ***	
   71	
   76	
   	
  	
  
Trust	
  of	
  the	
  
’other’	
  group	
  
3,2	
   3,6	
   **
*	
  
2.9	
   3.6	
   **
*	
  
3,2	
   3,8	
   	
  	
   4,0	
   4,4	
   ***	
  
 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Accultura+on	
  scales	
  (means	
  in	
  Lickert	
  scale)	
  
	
  	
   Est	
   EstRus	
   Nor	
   NorRus	
  
	
  	
   vin
d	
  
s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
   vin
d	
  
s-­‐c	
   sig	
   acc	
   s-­‐c	
   sig	
  
Minority	
  culture	
  
maintenance	
  
3,5	
   3,9	
   **
*	
  
3,3	
   3,5	
   **
*	
  
2,9	
   3,5	
   **
*	
  
4,30	
   4,0	
   	
  	
  
Adop+on	
  of	
  
majority	
  values	
  
and	
  tradi+ons	
  
3,8	
   3,7	
   	
  	
   2,7	
   3,0	
   **
*	
  
4,7	
   4,6	
   	
  	
   3,8	
   4,0	
   	
  	
  
 
	
  
	
  
	
  
Conclusions	
  	
  
1)  The	
  level	
  of	
  na+ons	
  –	
  different	
  histories	
  and	
  paeerns	
  of	
  
inter-­‐ethnic	
  polariza3on	
  impact	
  accultura3on	
  outcomes.	
  	
  
2)  The	
  level	
  of	
  blocs	
  –	
  asymmetry	
  between	
  the	
  majority/
minority	
  statuses	
  brings	
  about	
  the	
  tendency	
  to	
  see	
  the	
  
‘other’	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  bright	
  inter-­‐cultural	
  boundaries.	
  
3)  The	
  level	
  of	
  segments	
  –	
  the	
  reasons	
  behind	
  the	
  tendency	
  
to	
  construct	
  closed	
  inter-­‐cultural	
  boundaries	
  by	
  self-­‐
righteous	
  segments	
  have	
  to	
  do	
  with	
  their	
  lower	
  socio-­‐
economic	
  posi3on	
  in	
  society.	
  
	
  
 
Thus,	
  	
  
•  integra3on	
  policies	
  should	
  tackle	
  insecuri+es	
  and	
  
inequali+es,	
  which	
  exist	
  along	
  ethnic	
  lines.	
  	
  
	
  
However,	
  
•  insecurity	
  and	
  inequality	
  as	
  social	
  phenomena	
  
implement	
  important	
  social	
  func+ons	
  (innova3on,	
  
mo3va3on	
  etc.),	
  par3cularly	
  in	
  the	
  context	
  of	
  
globalizing	
  world.	
  	
  
 
Is	
  integra3on	
  a	
  mission	
  impossible?	
  Not	
  at	
  all.	
  
For	
  more	
  conference	
  materials	
  and	
  presenta3ons	
  
please	
  visit	
  www.misakonverents.ee	
  

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Comparison of acculturation outcomes among Russian minority and native majority in Estonia and Norway

  • 1. Workshop:     Russian  minori+es  and  Russian  migrants   –  integra+on  challenges  and  perspec+ves   in  Estonia  and  Norway   Prof.  Raivo  Ve+k,  Tallinn  University,  Estonia   Prof.  David  Lackland  Sam,  Bergen  University,  Norway   Marianna  Makarova,  Tallinn  University  /  Integra7on  and  Migra7on   Founda7on  Our  People,  Estonia   Interna+onal  conference  „Integra+on  Challenges  in  a  Radicalizing  World“   29  –  30  November  2016,  Tallinn,  Estonia  
  • 2. Comparison of acculturation outcomes among Russian minority and native majority in Estonia and Norway Raivo Vetik, Jüri Kruusvall Tallinn University
  • 3.   Contents   1.  Introduc3on  to  the  DIMA  (Determinants  of  Inclusive   Migrant  Accultura3on)  project     2.  Theory:  different  defini3ons  of  the  research  object  and   units  –  the  Chicago  school,  Berry  and  DIMA  project   3.  Empirical  results:  comparison  of  adapta3on  outcomes   among  different  subject  posi3ons  in  Estonia  and  Norway   received  along  the  rela3onal  accultura3on  model.          
  • 4.    1.  Introduc+on     •  DIMA  is  financed  by  the  Norwegian  Research  Council   •  Schedule:  September  2013  –  2016   •  Estonian  team:  Raivo  Ve3k,  Maaris  Raudsepp,  Jüri  Kruusvall,   Larissa  Kus-­‐Harbord,  Aune  Valk,  Marianna  Makarova,  Triin-­‐ Ketlin  Siska,  Marii  Haak,  Madli  Raudkivi   •  Partners  at  the  University  of  Bergen:  David  Lacland  Sam,   Valeria  Markova,  Arsenii  Markov   31/01/17   4  
  • 5.         Objec+ves:   •  to  compare  accultura3on  processes  and  outcomes  among   Russians  and  na3ve  majority  in  Estonia  and  Norway   •  to  contribute  to  the  larger  MIRIPS  project,  based  on  a   psychological  model  of  Berry   •  to  expand  the  psychological  model  by  introducing  the  field-­‐ theore3cal  (Bourdieu)  concept  ‘asymmetrical  accultura3on   field’    
  • 6.   Representa3ve  samples  in  Estonia  (n=1000)  and  Norway  (n=750)       The  basic  concept  of  the  DIMA  project:  ‘structural  asymmetry  of   the  accultura+on  field’:     ‘Integra3on  strategy  requires  non-­‐dominant  groups  to  adopt  the   basic  values  of  the  larger  society,  while  at  the  same  3me  the   dominant  group  must  be  prepared  to  adapt  na+onal  ins+tu+ons   (e.g.,  educa3on,  health,  labor)  to  beeer  meet  the  needs  of  all   groups  now  living  together  in  the  plural  society’  (Berry  1997).    
  • 7.                                                                              2.  Different  defini+ons  of  the                research  objects       •  Gordon  (Chicago  school):  one-­‐direc3onal  sociological  model,   in  which  adapta+on  of  migrants  in  the  form  of  assimila3on   •  Berry  :  two-­‐direc3onal  psychological  model,  in  which  four   types  of  accultura+on  aYtudes  among  minority/majority   groups   •  DIMA:  two-­‐direc3onal  rela3onal  model,  in  which  two  types  of   social  boundary  construc+on  strategies  (bright  versus   blurred;  difference  versus  sameness;  equality  versus   inequality  etc.)  between  and  within  majority  and  minority   groups.        
  • 8.             Two  levels  of  social  boundary  construc+on:     1.  The  level  of  blocks  as  subject  posi+ons:   Construc3on  of  social  boundaries  between  majority/minority   blocks  as  wholes   2.  The  level  of  segments  as  subject  posi+ons:   Construc3on  of  social  boundaries  within  two  blocks  between:     a)  vindicatory/self-­‐cri3cal  segments  (majority  group)   b)  accusive/self-­‐cri3cal  segments    (minority  group)     Differen3a3on  between  these  two  levels  is  based  on  the  concept   ‘asymmetrical  accultura3on  field’,  which  makes  such   comparisons  meaningful.  
  • 9.
  • 10.                  3.  Empirical  results     The  DIMA  project  data  allows  comparisons  on  three  levels:     •  the  level  of  na3ons  –  comparison  between  2  country  contexts   (thus,  we  need  to  study  also  the  histories  of  inter-­‐cultural   rela3ons,  respec3ve  laws,  policies  etc.)  as  well  as  paeerns  of   the  rela3ons  between  blocks  and  segments   •  the  level  of  blocks  –  comparison  between  2  majority  and  2   minority  blocks     •  the  level  of  segments  –  comparison  between  4  self-­‐righteous   and  4  self-­‐cri+cal  segments  
  • 11.                     Distribu+on  of  subject  posi+ons  in  the  two  na3ons  (cluster   analysis  was  carried  out  on  the  baeery  of  ques3ons  on  social   boundary  construc3on  regarding  ethnic  inequality  in  labor  market):   Estonia   •  Estonians:  vindicatory  sp  72%  and  self-­‐cri3cal  sp  28%;   •  Russians:  accusive  sp  100%  (very  accusive  sp  57%  and  moderately   accusive  sp  43%,  i.e.  no  self-­‐cri+cal  clusters  among  Russians!!!)   Norway   •  Norwegians:  vindicatory  51%  and  self-­‐cri3cal  49%;     •  Russians:  accusive  sp  68%  and  self-­‐cri3cal  32%.     Thus,  the  cross-­‐country  comparison  between  Estonia  and  Norway   highlights  the  role  of  na+onal  context  in  accultura+on  processes!!!  
  • 12.                                                                                    Socio-­‐economic  adapta+on                                                                        (means  in  the  Lickert  scale  and  percents)       Est   EstRus   Nor   NorRus       vind   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   vind   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   Life  sa+sfac+on   3,3   3,5       2,5   2,9   ***   4,0   3,9       3,5   4,0   ***   Family  socio-­‐ economic  situa+on   is  good   56   45       37   46       66   75       75   86       Socio-­‐economic   discrimina+on   2,4   2,8   ***   4,3   3,7   ***   3,4   3,6       3,1   2,6   ***   Job  does  not   correspond  to  educ.   30   21       48   34       29   30       41   29       Unemployed  during   last  5  years   17   17       20   12       14   17       41   45      
  • 13.                                                                                          Na+onal  and  ethnic  iden+fica+on                                (means  in  the  Lickert  scale)       Est   EstRus   Nor   NorRus   vin d   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   vin d   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   Belonging  to   na+onal  society   4,4   4,1   ** *   3,1   3,6   ** *   4,4   4,4       3.6   4.0   *   Ethnic  iden+ty       4,5   4,3       4,4   4,2   ** *   4,5   4,5       4.2   4.0      
  • 14.                                  Inter-­‐cultural  adapta+on                                                                          (percents  and  means  in  the  Lickert  scale)       Est   EstRus   Nor   NorRus   vin d   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   vin d   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   Feelings  towards   the  ’other’  group     52   55       67   79   ** *   53   58   ***   71   76       Trust  of  the   ’other’  group   3,2   3,6   ** *   2.9   3.6   ** *   3,2   3,8       4,0   4,4   ***  
  • 15.                                                                                                                                                                  Accultura+on  scales  (means  in  Lickert  scale)       Est   EstRus   Nor   NorRus       vin d   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   vin d   s-­‐c   sig   acc   s-­‐c   sig   Minority  culture   maintenance   3,5   3,9   ** *   3,3   3,5   ** *   2,9   3,5   ** *   4,30   4,0       Adop+on  of   majority  values   and  tradi+ons   3,8   3,7       2,7   3,0   ** *   4,7   4,6       3,8   4,0      
  • 16.         Conclusions     1)  The  level  of  na+ons  –  different  histories  and  paeerns  of   inter-­‐ethnic  polariza3on  impact  accultura3on  outcomes.     2)  The  level  of  blocs  –  asymmetry  between  the  majority/ minority  statuses  brings  about  the  tendency  to  see  the   ‘other’  in  terms  of  bright  inter-­‐cultural  boundaries.   3)  The  level  of  segments  –  the  reasons  behind  the  tendency   to  construct  closed  inter-­‐cultural  boundaries  by  self-­‐ righteous  segments  have  to  do  with  their  lower  socio-­‐ economic  posi3on  in  society.    
  • 17.   Thus,     •  integra3on  policies  should  tackle  insecuri+es  and   inequali+es,  which  exist  along  ethnic  lines.       However,   •  insecurity  and  inequality  as  social  phenomena   implement  important  social  func+ons  (innova3on,   mo3va3on  etc.),  par3cularly  in  the  context  of   globalizing  world.    
  • 18.   Is  integra3on  a  mission  impossible?  Not  at  all.  
  • 19. For  more  conference  materials  and  presenta3ons   please  visit  www.misakonverents.ee