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Prof. Triin Vihalemm: What factors divide and consolidate Russian population in Estonia?

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Prof. Triin Vihalemm: What factors divide and consolidate Russian population in Estonia?

  1. 1. What factors divide and consolidate Russian population in Estonia? Prof. Triin Vihalemm University of Tartu, Estonia International conference „Integration Challenges in a Radicalizing World“ 29 – 30 November 2016, Tallinn, Estonia
  2. 2. Intro: Solidarity grounds in Estonian society 85 20 13 26 22 27 19 30 34 48 67 48 45 84 68 91 39 38 56 12 12 96 16 13 30 25 17 34 34 39 43 58 63 46 83 74 90 25 31 46 9 7 19 56 52 19 42 19 29 12 12 28 31 42 33 47 66 64 75 43 28 50 16 6 14 75 52 18 41 16 13 28 7 18 24 23 35 45 60 70 71 13 15 21 9 2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Est 2002* Est 2014 Est. Rus 2002* Est. Rus. 2014 * For some categories the first data is from 2005 (Ukrainians etc; religion; party supporters; lifestyle followers) With whom do you feel certain togetherness?
  3. 3. Questions for discussion • What are the patterns of social involvementamong Estonian Russian population? • Patterns – combinationsof several features • How transnational are the members of clusters of social involvement? • What are the prospects for further developmentof solidarity, common values and civic thinkingamong the groups of involvement?
  4. 4. Dimensions of social involvement 60 53 49 76 65 20 47 54 14 32 29 17 22 51 32 29 26 15 22 7 13 29 21 17 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT (citizenship, elections, solidarity with co-citizens) NGO INVOLVEMENT (NGO member; trust in NGOs; elected to a representative body, voluntary work) TRUST IN INSTITUTIONS (parliament, president, government, mass media, churches, courts, the police, the educational … ALTERNATIVE DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION (meetings; demonstrations; protests; petitions; political "wearables"). ECONOMIC INVOLVEMENT (entrepreneur; business/EU projects, lifelong learning; real estate; sufficiency of money) PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC SPACE (following of local news; public (mass) sports and culture activities, commemorations etc) USE OF ESTONIAN (multifunctional Est. language use (incl.media); solidarity with Estonians) ETHNO-CULTURAL IDENTITY (folk holidays; ethno-cultural associations; religiosity; feeling of belonging) missing/weak moderate strong Source: Me. The World. Media 2014
  5. 5. Patterns of social involvement 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 participation in public space economic involvement political involvement NGO involvement trust in institutions alternative democratic participation networking in Estonian ethno-cultural identity DIASPORA CIVIC/ETHNIC SOCIALLY PASSIVE SOCIALLY ACTIVE Source: Me. The World. Media 2014
  6. 6. Patterns of social involvement SOCIALLY ACTIVE 19% • 83% citizens; Est knowledge • active (foreign) media use • mobile • multifarious solidarities • 67% females • 48% higher education CIVIC/ETHNIC 35% • 78% citizens; moderate Est knowledge • active (foreign) media use • (pan)regional solidarities • immobile • 34% higher education DIASPORA 26% • Russian/undetermined cc • 90% do not speak Est • 80% in NGOs • 49% are religious • 20% basic education • oldest cluster SOCIALLY PASSIVE 21% • undetermined /Russian cc • voluntary & structurally precsribed non-participation • few resources: educational, financial and social network • older cluster
  7. 7. Current status, further prospects SOCIALLY ACTIVE • high individual mobility plus social capitals • flexible practical and discursive consciousness, prone for new ideologies and lifestyle changes • high expectations, „voice“ • negotiating reception of legitimizing narratives CIVIC/ETHNIC • stability as norm • accepatence of major legitimizing narratives • silence as communication • high mediating potential (employment in service sector, counceling jobs) DIASPORA • low agency as employee and national electorate member, limited possibilities to respond to lifestyle changes • oppositionalreception of legitimizing narratives • good civic competences to influence politics via NGOs and activism • clear value set, value-driven rationality SOCIALLY PASSIVE • the institutional channelsand forms to communicate are practically missing • passivityas a protectingbuffer against larger mobilization; „sleeping“ anxieties ?
  8. 8. Transnationalism Aggregated index variable: • following foreign media channels; • social media contacts abroad; • visits abroad; • acquaintances abroad 52% 34% 34% 13% 18% 22% 22% 12% 30% 44% 44% 74% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Socially passive Diaspora Civic/Ethnic Socially active missing/weak moderate strong
  9. 9. Thank you! triin.vihalemm@ut.ee
  10. 10. Presentation given at International conference Integration Challenges in a Radicalising World 29 – 30 November 2016 in Tallinn, Estonia For more conference materials and presentations please visit www.misakonverents.ee

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