Uncertainty reduction Definition: The process of monitoring the social environment to learn more about self and others. Interaction gain information and form impressions of others. The more they learn about each other and find commonalities, the less uncertain they are about each other
Factors influence perceptions of others1. Observing others2. Using stereotypes3. Emotional state4. Perceiving others’ message5. Improving the accuracy of social perceptions
Observing others Initial social perceptions or first impressions of others are usually made from observations These impressions influence how we act toward them
We make similar judgments about people we meet online: based on their profile, pictures, nicknames, comments …
Implicit personality theories Sometimes we make judgments of other people based on implicit personality theories Definition: assumptions about which physical characteristics and personality traits or behaviors are associated with one another.
Halo effect• When you judge others based on implicit personality theories your perception is based on the halo effect• Definition: to generalize and perceive that a person has a whole set of characteristics when you have actually observed only one characteristic, trait, or behavior.
Two types of halo effects: Positive halo: admit positive characteristics to others Negative halo: impute negative characteristics to others
Perceiving Others’ Messages Our observations of others and our emotional state certainly affect how we perceive others. They also tend to inﬂuence how we perceive the messages others send to us. Two additional factors that inﬂuence how we perceive others’ messages are context shared language
Context The better we know someone, the more likely we are to share an understanding of the context in which our messages are sent and received. When we don’t know someone well or when we are speaking with several people or a large audience, there are expanded opportunities for messages to be perceived differently.
Shared language Even when both participants speak the same language, they might not enjoy a “shared language” in terms of how each one perceives speciﬁc words, visual images, and nonverbal cues. To clarify, the sender might use a word with which the receiver is unfamiliar, ambiguously use a word that has multiple meanings, misuse a symbol, or use a personal deﬁnition of a word.
Understanding how observations andemotional states, as well as context andshared language affect our perceptions ofothers and the messages they send is a ﬁrststep in improving your perceptual accuracy.
Seek more information toverify perceptions try to collect additional information so that your perceptions are better grounded talk with the person and ask for the information you need to become more comfortable
Realize that your perceptions ofa person will change over time People often base their behavior on perceptions that are old or based on incomplete information.
Use the skill of perceptionchecking verbalize the perception and see whether others agree with what you see, hear and interpret. 3 steps : (1) watch the behavior of the other person (2) ask yourself “What does that behavior mean to me? (3) describe the behavior and put your interpretation into words
Observing Others: first impressions, use the profile and other pictures that people post to judge somebody we meet online… Using Stereotypes: - it is human nature to name, label, and organize in order to make sense of the stimuli. - stereotyping can lead to prejudice and discrimination
Emotional State: the factor that affects how accurately we perceive others is our emotional state at the time of the interaction Perceiving Others’ Messages: - we interpret the content of the speaker based on the context - even when both participants speak the same language, they might not understand each other.
Improving the Accuracy of Social Perceptions: Question the accuracy, seek more information, perceptions will change over time, perception checking.
THANKS FOR YOU ATTENTION! Group members: 1. Dinh Quoc Minh Dang 2. Vo Huu Loc 3. Nguyen Dinh Minh Sang 4. Tran Thi Ngan Giang 5. Nguyen Ngoc Cam 6. Nguyen Hong To Ngan