Social Friendship GroupsA social friendship group is composed of friends who have a genuine concern about each other’s welfareand enjoy spending time together. Their interactions are characterized by “interpersonal ties andpositive, amiable preexisting relationships among members” (Thompson, 2003, p. 239) Social Friendship Groups
Social Friendship GroupsMost of us belong to more than one social friendship group during our lives.You may have had a group of friends you were close to in high school, a group of buddies you wereclose to when you served in the military, or a group of friends you play golf or softball with regularly.Sometimes people who work together evolve into a social friendship group when they begin to gettogether for social activities outside of work.Social friendship groups may initially form around a shared interest like a book club or Bible study, but asmembers spend time together and ﬁnd they enjoy one another’s company, they may evolve into a socialfriendship group.
Support GroupsSupport groups are composed of people who come together to bolster each other by providingencouragement, honest feedback, and a safe environment for expressing deeply personal feelingsabout a problem common to the members.Support groups must create an environment where members feel safe to disclose highly personalinformation. So members need to make sure that their messages follow the guidelines in Chapter 8 forcomforting, which include clarifying supportive intentions, buffering face threats, using other-centeredlanguage, framing, and selectively offering advice.
What is an Interest Group? An interest group is composed of individuals who come together because they share a concern, hobby, or activity
What are the types of an Interest Group? These groups may be: - formal with defined goals and tasks - informal
What can be an Interest Group? They may be part of a larger organization Some interest groups are externally focused on a common political or social issue and adopt an agenda to achieve change. Other interest groups are internally focused on increasing skills or knowledge of their members.
How do the Interest Group’s members meet? Commonly, the group members meet each others offline But, there are also some interest groups meet online.
What are the aims of an Interest Group? Because interest group members share some passion, all members ought to have an opportunity to communicate their expertise by: - encouraging members to share success stories - doing so in ways that all members highlight what they know without demeaning the knowledge or opinions of others
Service groups are composed of individuals who come togetherto perform hands-on charitable works or to raise money to helporganizations that perform such work.
Service groups may be local affiliates of larger secular or religiousservice organizations like Break Away, Lions ClubInternational, Red Cross, Salvation Army, B’nai B’rith, and Habitatfor Humanity.
The Salvation ArmyThe Salvation Army is a Christian denomination and internationalmovement known for its charity shops and other charity work, operatingin 126 countries.
Red CrossThe International Red Cross is aninternational humanitarianmovement which was founded toprotect human life and health, toensure respect for all humanbeings, and to prevent and alleviatehuman suffering.
Other service groups are local and function independently.Small soup kitchens, urban gardening groups, and communitybeautification groups perform charitable work that may includeraising funds and interfacing with government agencies.
Because service groups are both voluntary and task-oriented, they need to be dedicated to the task as well assensitive to the ego and emotional needs of members. Socommunication should :
(1) be clear about individual tasks, roles, and responsibilities: “Jim, as I remember it, today you agreed to work on patching the roof.”(2) encourage and praise member accomplishments: “I was really impressed with how sensitive you were when you turned her down for another bag of groceries”(3) be polite: “Mary, it would be great if you would please work with Mike on stuffing envelopes for that mailing. Thanks so much!”
• Get to know each other. If youre going to be working in a group with other people for any extended period of time, spend a few1 minutes talking at the outset of the first meeting. Introduce yourselves if you do not already know one another. • Assign roles if the project requires working together in a group for an extended period of time to reach a specific goal. For instance you might designate one person the group leader or2 facilitator and another the scribe or note taker. • Exchange contact information to enable group members to communicate effectively outside of scheduled meetings if the project is long term.3
• Identify the groups goal. For instance, perhaps a professor asked you to accomplish a specific task within your group, or your company asked you to research specific information and4 report back. Discuss and document the groups goal to make sure you all agree on the primary goal of the groups work. • Divide tasks into steps and assign each member a specific task to attack long term projects. Often this will go easier if people volunteer for tasks they like to do.5
• Listen to each other and encourage each other. Make sure everyone in the group is heard and offer encouragement when6 others contribute a good idea or perform a task effectively. • Deal immediately with conflict if it arises. Although difficult to deal with, conflict or discord in a group can undermine the groups objectives. As quickly as possible, address any conflicts to keep the group members focused on the ultimate goal.7
Unified Commitment to a Goal• When the team is presented with a goal, they can come together and work as a single unit to complete the task.
Participation• In order for a team to act as a team everyone must be participating in the creation of a solution.• A team does not have extra members. Each member of a team is essential to the teams success, and when the group is given a task, each member knows what their job is and sets out to put in their fair share of the effort.
Open Communication• Issues within a team are handled by face-to-face communication. Team members do not talk behind each others back as there is a respect developed among team members that necessitates direct and open communication on all issues.
Decision-Making• The members of the group are respected for their various areas of expertise, and the leader of the group has developed the ability to obtain the group members opinions to formulate the groups response.• This applies to decisions made within the group ranging from resolving internal conflict to a potential change in group leadership.
Efficient Use of Ideas• Brainstorming is one way that groups come up with the solution to a problem.• An effective team is able to gather information from each member and formulate that information into a response.
Group dynamicsGroup dynamics is the way a group interacts to achieve its goal.
Evaluating group dynamics Effective groups periodically stop and evaluate how their interactions are affecting what they are accomplishing and how members perceive themselves and others Tuckman’s framework
Evaluating group dynamics At times you may be asked to provide a formal evaluation of the group dynamics of a class project group or other work team
Evaluating group dynamics One way you might evaluate members is to describe how each member performed his or her specific tasks and how well his or her communication contributed to the cohesiveness, problem solving, and conflict resolution processes in the group.
Evaluating group dynamicsLike the evaluations business managers make of employees, theseevaluations serve to document the efforts of group members. They canbe submitted to the instructor, just as they would be submitted to asupervisor.In business, these documents provide a basis for determiningpromotion, merit pay, and salary adjustments. In the classroom, they canprovide a basis for determining one portion of each member’s grade.
Sum upSometimes you might be asked to evaluate how you and othermembers participate in a group.Doing so might help your instructor grade group dynamics or helpyour employer determine merit pay or bonuses.