Chapter Two Final


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EPS 100/116 Fall, 2009
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  • Two students, one Métis and other English Canadian, are discussing their latest reading assignment in a Canadian history class Louis Riel was a guy the English Canadian student says sincerely to his classmate. You must be very proud o him the Métis student is offended at what sound like a condescending remark In a biology class a shy but earnest student mistakenly used the term orgasm instead of organism when answering the professor’s questions – entire class breaks out in laughter These play an important role in nearly all the important messages we send and receive. – what is the nature of perception
  • In the movie Freaky Friday (2003) – there is a freak event where the mother and teenage daughter find themselves trapped in each other’s body – before each had little empathy for the issues each other faced (work place, school environment). Afterwards each recognizes that they weren’t listening perhaps enough – and there actually was legitimate complaining from the teen and likewise the daughter realizes all of the demands on her mom. Perfect movie example on Building Empathy Whale Rider (2002) I present-day New Zealand, 12 year old Pai is growing up in an all-Maori community. Her grandfather Koro’s most important task is to find and train their next chief. Maori tradition mandates that chiefs are always males but Pai believes that she could become the next leader. Despite his love for his granddaughter, Koro fiercely resists this ambition. He responds to Pai’s determination by almost constantly criticizing her and questioning her achievements. The harder Pai tries, the more critical her grandfather becomes. His judgments cause Pai great pain. From the sociological angle, the film captures the challenging. of adapting long-standing traditions to social change. Bu from the communication perspective, the film illustrates that it is difficult but possible to create a unique identity in the face of rejection by a powerful significant other with different ideas about who we should be. Narratives at the workplace an employee received “differential treatment” such as time off with pay or plum work assignments – employees created a climate for reinforcement of the differential treatment – the narrative defines those events Workers tend to see reinforcement for their perceptions by keeping a mental scorecard soliciting support for example “did you see that she was late again” “ Sense-making” is interactive – we formulate judgments about others WITH others So, any misjudgment we may form are often not shortcomings but a common strategy we all rely on to understand our world and generate conversations.
  • One of the greatest obstacles to understanding and agreement arise from errors in what psychologists call attribution We tend to judge ourselves n the most generous terms possible. We label this as self-serving bias. When others suffer we often blame the problem on their personal qualities Cognitive Conceit Examples When others botch a job we might think they weren’t listening well or trying hard enough – when we botch a job it’s because the directions weren’t clear or we weren’t given enough time When someone lashes out angrily, we say he’s being moody or too sensitive – when we blow off steam it’s because we’re under a lot of stress at the moment We tend to give ourselves more credit than we deserve – as an example in 1923 (shared Nobel Prize) Frederick Banting and John Macleod both were self-serving in their invention of invention of insulin – Macleod not mentioning Banting’s name and Banting said Macleod was more of a hindrance than a help
  • Take one minute (60 seconds) and look at Lori or I and record everything you observe through your five sense. Now I see you chewing on your pencil, blinking your eyes, etc…
  • Intense Loud music, people dressed in bright clothing Repetitious Dripping faucets, persistent people Contrastive Normally happy person who acts grumpy or vice versa Motives help determine what information we select from our environment. If you are anxious about being late for a date you will notice all of the clocks around you – if you are hungry you will notice any food in site. So, if I’m looking for a “date” – my motives are different than looking for food. I would be looking for tall, dark…etc.
  • Examples When two children fight on the playground, it might be a mistake to blame the one who lashes out first. Perhaps the other one was at least equally responsible by teasing or refusing to co-operate. You might complain about an acquaintance whose malicious gossiping or arguing has become annoying, forgetting that, by previously tolerating that kind of behavior you have been at least partly responsible. Activity – list the first impression of Lori and I – now in groups talk about that – what is your impression now? Same/different/jury is still out
  • People commonly think that others have the same attitudes and motives that they do People with low self-esteem imagine that others view them unfavorable, whereas people who like themselves imagine that others like them too We can arrive at a false consensus by believing that certain of our opinions and behaviors, in particular those that are undesirable are much more common than they are. Examples: You’ve head an off-color joke that you found funny. You might assume that it won’t offend a somewhat conservative friend. It does. You lost your temper with a friend a week ago and said something you regret. In fat, if someone said those things to you, you would consider the relationship finished. Imagining that your friend feels the same way, you avoid making contact. In fact, your friend feels that he was partly responsible and has avoided you because he thinks you’re the one who wants to end things Arthur Lausch – long mullet, great athlete…teased about his name Arthur – broke up We tend to be influenced by the negative traits – job interviewers were likely to reject candidates who revealed negative information even when the total amount of information was highly positive. SOMETIMES – the attitude makes sense – surgeon with shaky hands a teacher who hates children
  • You can gain appreciation for the way perceptual errors operate by proposing two different explanations for each of the situations that follow. First, explain the behavior as you would if you were the person involved. Second, explain it as you would if the person involved were someone you dislike. If your explanations for these behaviors differ, ask yourself why. Are the differing attributions justifiable, or do they support what we have learned so far? How do thee perceptual errors operate in making judgments about others’ behavior, especially when those others come from different social groups.
  • Examples of each: Relational The behavior that seems positive hen you are in a satisfying relationship might seem completely different when the relationship isn’t going well. For instance you might enjoy a particular quirk of a partner when things are going well in the relationship, but it may interfere when things are going not as well. Degree of Involvement with the Other Person We sometimes view people with whom we have or seek to have a close relationship more favorable than those whom we observe from a detached perspective. Past Experience You’ve been gouged by a landlord before so you are wary of landlords Expectations You expect that your boyfriend will drop you soon and then he does – or your boss is unhappy with your work, you’ll probably feel threatened by a request for your boyfriend or boss to ask to “talk” Social Roles Gender, facial expressions and status at work all affect interpretation of another Knowledge Background knowledge of a situation assists with perceiving others. If you work in an environment where socializing is common and colleagues have friendly relationships, you may be less likely to perceive a fellow worker’s sadness if you know of a particular loss. Self-Concept The way we feel about ourselves strongly influences how we interpret others’ behavior. Self-esteem is affected by and influences our interpersonal relationships so completely that we are often completely unaware of it.
  • Relational Eastern culture – three pictures of a car, a bus, and a tire – they were as likely to group car with tire (relational) English/Western - “car” with “bus” (similarity)
  • Silence in conversational situations has a negative value in North American culture. Westerners are uncomfortable with silence – they are often straightforward and honest Asian cultures discourage the expression of thoughts and feelings. Silence is valued, as Taoist sayings indicate: ‘In much talk there is great weariness’ – a talkative person is a show-off or insincere. In working groups – have a discussion on the cultural differences among the three groups Cross-cultural difference can be quite subtle. Along with ethnicity, geography also can influence perception. People living in southern latitudes of the US are more socially isolated, higher in self-esteem, more likely to touch others, more likely to verbalize. As you move further to the north this attention may not be so well received. Example the Bush presidents southern style or t
  • Dimensions of Empathy Perspective-taking The ability to take on the viewpoint of another person – a suspension of judgment Emotional Dimension That allows us to experience the feelings that others have – fear, joy, sadness and so on Genuine Concern For the welfare of the other person – when we empathize we go beyond just thinking and feeling as others do – care about their well-being
  • Infants becomes visibly upset when they hear another infant crying – if a child hurts his finger, another child might put her finger in her mouth. We may behave, when we meet someone, in a way that is natural for us – they may behave in a way that is natural for them – problem is we don’t coincide. Total empathy is impossible to achieve – it is simply too difficult of a task.
  • I used this on the weekend with a colleague. Here is what an example would look like When you left the bar last night (behavior) I wasn’t sure whether you were mad at me (first interpretation) OR just getting home early to study (second interpretation). How did you feel? You haven’t been texting that often (behavior) I wonder whether you are really busy (first interpretation) OR you weren’t receiving my texts (second interpretation). What’s going on?
  • Perception of others are subjective and it takes real effort to bridge the gap between our ideas about others and the way they view themselves. Self concept is like a mental mirror that reflects how we view ourselves: not only our physical features, but also our emotional states, talents, likes and dislikes, values, and roles
  • How do you define yourself? As a student? A man or woman? By your age? Your religion? Occupation? A list of twenty or even thirty terms would be only a partial description.
  • As a class we will talk about society perception of FN child/adults – who are we as FN students?
  • Our evaluations of self-worth – one persons self-concept might include being religious, tall, or athletic – that person’s self-esteem would be shaped by how he or she felt about these qualities “I’m gla that I am athlete” or “I am embarrassed about being so tall” Self-esteem has a powerful effect on the way we communicate. Those with high self-esteem are more willing to communicate than those with low self-esteem. Those with low self-esteem are likely to be critical of others and expect rejection from them. They are also critical of their own performances.
  • Arthur Combs and Doald Snygg said: The self is essentially a social product arising out of experience with people . . . We learn the most significant and fundamental facts about ourselves from “reflected appraisals” inferences about ourselves made as a consequence of the ways we perceive their behaviors towards us. Significant others such as friends, lovers, employers, employees all leave an imprint on how you view yourself. If your self-concept includes the element “poor student’ you might respond to a high grade from one of us as “I was just lucky!” or the proof must be an easy grader. Some self-concept issues are obvious – for example – if you are taller than everyone else – then you are considered tall – we may rank this as a strong attribute if it helps to make the basketball team, but not if all of the boys are shorter than you in Grade 7 or 8 – a dependence on social environment. Some societies view weight as a sign of wealth, whereas may be seen as a negative attribute in some cultures and lead to behavioral disorders for change such as depression and eating disorders.
  • In this situation how do you reconcile the desire to avoid diminishing another person’s self-esteem with the need to be honest? Is it possible to both honest and supportive?
  • Lori talks about the Nakota Language Pheasant Rump Linguists K. David Harrison and Gregory D. S. Anderson, both of the Living Tongues Institute, and National Geographic Fellow Chris Rainier are conducting the work as part of National Geographic's Enduring Voices project. Harrison estimates that more than half of the world's human languages have no written form. "If the last speaker of many of these vanished tomorrow, the language would be lost because there is no dictionary, no literature, no text of any kind," he said. Losing languages translates directly into losing knowledge, Harrison added. "Most of what humans know about the world is encoded in oral languages. When we lose a language, we lose centuries of human thinking about time, seasons, sea creatures, reindeer, edible flowers, mathematics, landscapes, myths, music, the unknown and the everyday."
  • English as an additional language students/families arrive to Regina, daily. Impact of language on your self-concept is powerful. You may feel you’re not as ‘good’ as speakers of the native language; on the other, you might believe there’s something unique and worth preserving in the language you use.
  • In Chinese written language, for example, the pronoun “I’ looks very similar to the word for “selfish” In Japanese the word for different is wrong – the nail that sticks out of the collective is nailed down.
  • Examples Friendly or aloof Energetic or lazy Smart or stupid It is said that there are almost 18,000 trait words in the English language that can be used to describe a personality 10% of children are born with a biological disposition toward shyness 10% seem to be born with especially sociable dispositions. Nervous with authority figures – this image probably comes from evaluations you have received in the pat from significant others – teacher, perhaps, or former employers
  • You expected to become nervous and not get the job – you ultimately did. You expected to be benched for the second quarter – you were. A friend described a person you were about to meet as lazy – your prediction turned out to be true. Type 1 Job interview – you expect a particular outcome and it is – same for anxious public speakers. Type 2 Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson’s classic example of randomly drawing 20 per cent of students out of a class and telling each that each had unusual potential for intellectual growth. Teachers did not know and in 8 months – there was a change in intellectual performance. So, when a teacher says to a student I think you are bright – the child can take this information and change their self-concept – unfortunately the same holds true for a teacher that sends the opposite message. The self-fulfilling prophecy is also held true in families.
  • Perceived self – private self – go back, now and review the list you made about yourself – you would be able to now sort that list into very private “self” and public “self” In the presenting self Sociologist Erving Goffman used the word face to describe the presenting self and he coined the term faceword to describe the verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting image and images of others. He argued that each of us can be viewed as a kind of playwright/performer, who creates and then act out roles that we can others to believe.
  • An example of self-deprecating humor to deflect a bad situation – for example your friend gives you the wrong directions to a party – when you arrive you off handedly say “I’m a terrible navigator” This preserves your friend and defines you as “don’t sweat the small stuff”
  • Most people play a variety of roles: respectful student, joking friend, friendly neighbor – different interaction with each parent/siblings/relatives – with different relationships “ Audience” is made up of other actors who are trying to create their own characters. We, therefore, collaborate with others to create improvised scenes where our characters mesh. You can choose how your character develops a scene or ends a scene. Collaboration does not mean the same thing as agreement. Remember from Chapter 1 that communication is fluid water, wind, spider web…. Some of your communication involves a conscious attempt to manage impressions. Most job interviews and first dates are clear examples of conscious identity management. Some people will present no facial image when not in the company of others – some mirror the company their keep – smile/smile; nod/nod – face to face varies from over the phone/text/voice message. Many of us have developed “scripts” for over time to use for repeated or similar situations – this is not to say that we do not act spontaneously as adults – when our face is threatened we become very conscious of what is around us. High self-monitors have the ability to pay attention to their own behavior and others’ reactions and self-adjust. These people are good actors and can create an impression that they want. They are generally good “people readers” who can adjust their behavior to get a desired reaction from others. The drawback is you can miss the “real” thing because you are working too hard to perform. Those individuals who do not self-monitor live life quite differently “what you see is what you get” compared to someone who is a high self-monitor.
  • For example, it would be impossible to keep a job without meeting certain expectations. Societal norms – manners Dressing up appropriately for a court date to avoid a fine – in a suit/tie to get a job. Act friendlier to get a date with someone/promotion.
  • Manner consists of communicator’s words and nonverbal actions (physicians) Appearance – personal items people use to shape an image (lab coat/tailored suit/short skirt) Setting – physical items office décor, dorm room, vehicles, hand bags and setting we choose to arrange our “stuff” – an environment that will present the desired front to others if you ever doubt this fact – just think of the last time that you straightened up the house before guests arrived – you are more comfortable when it is you “backstage” – but the front for the public is quite different.
  • Computer mediated communication allows us to edit messages until we create just the desired impression – level clarity, humor, logic – you can be in your pj’s eating, bitching all the while sending off a soft, gentle text or email 55% of online teens had more than one screen name or email address and many have reported using the online names to hide their real identities from strangers, and even friends. 25% of all teens said that they had given false information about themselves in emails or instant messages. Communicators who are concerned with impression management don’t always prefer computer-mediate channels if their “face” is supported by those around them.
  • Impression management may appear dishonest – certainly manipulation can happen – example a one-night stand – lying about academic record to get a job – how could we communicate without thinking about which front to put forward
  • Chapter Two Final

    1. 1. EPS 116/100 <ul><li>Welcome! </li></ul>
    3. 3. Perception, the Self and Communication <ul><li>You should understand: </li></ul><ul><li>How common perceptual tendencies and situational factors influence perception. </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of culture on perception and the self-concept. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of empathy in communication </li></ul><ul><li>The communicative influences that shape the self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>How self-fulfilling prophecies influence behavior </li></ul><ul><li>How the process of identity management can result in presentation of multiple selves </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for and the ethical dimensions of identity management. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Perception, the Self and Communication <ul><li>You should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the tendencies outlined in this chapter have led you to develop distorted perceptions of yourself and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Use perception-checking and empathy to be more accurate in your perceptions of others’ behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the ways you influence the self-concepts of others and the ways significant others influence your self-concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the communication-related self-fulfilling prophecies that you have imposed on yourself, that others have imposed on you, and that you have imposed on others. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various identities you attempt to create and the ethical merit of your identity management strategies. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Perceiving Others <ul><li>Two or more people often perceive the world in radically different ways which presents major challenges for communication </li></ul><ul><li>The set of beliefs of each of us hold about ourselves – our self-concept-has a powerful effect on our own communication behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The messages we send can shape others’ self-concept and thus influence their communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The image we present to the world varies from one situation to another. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Perceiving Others <ul><li>Narrative and Perception </li></ul><ul><li>The social stories that we and others creates to make sense of our personal world are called narratives. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Perception-checking’ can help cobble a pathway to connect different narratives. </li></ul><ul><li>Different narratives can lead to problematic communication. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Perceiving Others <ul><li>Attribution is the process of attaching meaning to behavior – we attribute meaning to our own actions and actions of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Conceit occurs when we overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments and reconstruct the memory of our past in self-serving ways. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Perceiving Others <ul><li>We are bombarded with more information than we can possibly take in during our first encounter with another person </li></ul><ul><li>There is a tidal wave of data to sort through… So, </li></ul>
    9. 10. Perceiving Others <ul><li>We pay attention to: </li></ul><ul><li>Intense </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitious </li></ul><ul><li>Contrastive </li></ul>
    10. 11. Perceiving Others <ul><li>Most noticeable behavior of others isn’t always the most important. </li></ul><ul><li>We cling to First Impression, Even if Wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Problems arise when the labels we attach are inaccurate – always keep an O P E N mind </li></ul>
    11. 12. Perceiving Others <ul><li>We tend to assume that others are similar to us </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to favor negative impressions over positive one </li></ul><ul><li>BAD IDEA to allow negative traits to overshadow positive – can lead to loneliness </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume your first judgment is accurate </li></ul>
    12. 13. Perceiving Others <ul><li>T-Chart Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Dozing off in class </li></ul><ul><li>Getting angry at a customer on the job </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing sloppily in public </li></ul><ul><li>Being insensitive to a friend’s distress </li></ul><ul><li>Laughing at an inappropriate or offensive joke </li></ul>
    13. 14. Perceiving Others <ul><li>Relational Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Involvement with the Other Person </li></ul><ul><li>Past Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Social Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul>
    14. 15. Perception and Culture <ul><li>Two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul>
    15. 16. Perception and Culture <ul><li>Activity 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences among First Nations /Asian /European </li></ul>
    16. 17. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Empathy is the ability to re-create another person’s perspective, to experience the world from the other’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Three dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine concern </li></ul>
    17. 18. Empathy and Perception <ul><li>Sympathy – means you feel compassion for another person’s predicament </li></ul><ul><li>VERSUS </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy – means you have a personal sense of what that predicament is like </li></ul>
    18. 19. Perception-Check <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>A description of the behavior you noticed; </li></ul><ul><li>At least two possible interpretations of the behavior; and </li></ul><ul><li>A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Perceiving the Self <ul><li>Self-concept is a set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourselves. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Who are You? <ul><li>Activity 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Take 5 minutes to list as many ways as you can to identify who you are. </li></ul><ul><li>moods </li></ul><ul><li>feelings </li></ul><ul><li>appearance </li></ul><ul><li>physical condition </li></ul><ul><li>social traits </li></ul><ul><li>talents </li></ul><ul><li>intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>social roles </li></ul>
    21. 22. Perceiving the Self <ul><li>Social Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul>
    22. 23. Perceiving the Self <ul><li>Activity 4 </li></ul><ul><li>How does our culture contribute to our self-concept? </li></ul>
    23. 24. Perceiving the Self <ul><li>Self-esteem is our evaluation of self-worth. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Communication and Development of Self <ul><li>Our identity almost comes exclusively from communication with others. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Ethical Challenge: Is Honesty the Best Policy <ul><li>Activity 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Your friend, an aspiring singer, wants to try out for Canadian Idol? She can’t hold a tune. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Culture and Self-Concept <ul><li>Preservation of Language </li></ul><ul><li>Some 7,000 distinct languages are spoken in the world today, and one of them dies about every two weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeds that of birds, mammals, fish or plants and that language loss often parallels loss of biological species. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Culture and Self-Concept <ul><li>Non-dominant Language </li></ul><ul><li>You will feel pressure to assimilate by speaking the ‘better’ language; or </li></ul><ul><li>You may refuse to accede to the majority language and maintain loyalty to the non-dominant language. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Culture and Self-Concept <ul><li>Collective Cultures – gain identity by belonging to a group (Asian/First Nation) </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist Cultures – gain identity through self (Australian/Canadians/Americans) </li></ul>
    29. 30. Self-Concept, Personality and Communication <ul><li>Personality – consistent set of traits people exhibit across a variety of situations </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept shapes our communication behavior and is shaped by it. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>This occurs when a person’s expectations of an outcome makes the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise have been true. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>When your own expectations influence your behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>When expectations of one person govern another’s actions. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>So, </li></ul><ul><li>We are what we believe we are . . . </li></ul>
    32. 33. Critical Thinking Probe <ul><li>Activity 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one communication-related predictions you make about others. What are the effects of these predictions? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one self-fulfilling prophecy you imposed on yourself? </li></ul>
    33. 34. Identity Management: Communication as Impression Management <ul><li>Public and Private Selves </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived self – who you are in honest self-examination </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting self – is your public image “face” verbal and non-verbal </li></ul>
    34. 35. Identity Management: Communication as Impression Management <ul><li>Facework </li></ul><ul><li>Managing our own identity </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating in ways that reinforce the identities that others are trying to present. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Identity Management: Communication as Impression Management <ul><li>We Strive to Construct Multiple Identities </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Management is Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Management Can Be Conscious or Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>People Differ in their Degree of Identity Management </li></ul>
    36. 37. Why Manage Impressions? <ul><li>For social norms/rules. </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish personal goal/goals. </li></ul>
    37. 38. How do We Manage Impressions? <ul><li>Face-to-Face Impression Management </li></ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul>
    38. 39. How do We Manage Impressions? <ul><li>Impression Management in Mediated Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Control over what messages say (email, text, voice mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Control over how the message is shaped. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Impression Management and Honesty <ul><li>We all present a variety of “faces” throughout the day to manage our impressions. </li></ul>
    40. 41. Ethical Challenge: Honesty and Multiple Identities <ul><li>A time when you presented a public identity that didn’t match your private self in a manner that wasn’t unethical. </li></ul><ul><li>A situation (real or hypothetical) in which you have presented or could present a dishonest identity. </li></ul>
    41. 42. On Being a Teacher <ul><li>Journal Entry – Chapter Two </li></ul>