Click to reveal additional bullets.The first box states the definition used in the book.The last two bullet points are: 1) optional details/examples, and 2) connections to other topics in this course.
Automatic animation.More detail on the second point: these obstacles include tendencies that derail scientific thinking, as well as reasons that we fear the wrong things.
Click to reveal second text box and graphic.In this case, “states” refers to a “state of being,” such as “happiness.”Instructor: you could ask students, “what concept is suggested by the picture on the slide?”...Beach? Vacation? Waves? Tropics? Chair? Emptiness? Happiness? See how many concepts students can come up with.
Click to reveal bullets. Then ask students to draw their triangle prototype when prompted.Click to show examples.
Automatic animation.These examples are more varied than the ones in the text that clearly fit. I suggest challenging students when they say that one of the objects here does not fit, since they all are a place you can sit upright. Students may figure out that many of these examples, while they fit the definition of “chair,” are a better fit for some other concept such as bench, swing, lounge, etc. This brings out another function of concepts; they are categories for observations, mental boxes to put things in.
Scale of faces flies by on the bottom automatically and the first question appears immediately after. Click to reveal second question/face and again for a final note.Instructor: Let your students know that these categories are difficult to define and the terms and categories may even be offensive to some. Ask your students if they think these categories problematic (which may render the study invalid).The answer in the first case is 60 percent Asian. In the second, it is 70 percent Caucasian. The average answer among students might be higher in both cases unless they adjust because they know the point of the exercise...that we tend to push things into categories. This is even more true if the question is delayed, our memory shoves experiences even more toward pre-existing categories/concepts.It is important to remind students here that ‘concepts’ such as ‘Asian’ or ‘Caucasian’ are culturally determined—by definition, anyone born in Asia is Asian, but ethnic Saudis do not look like ethnic Tibetans, who do not look like Filipinos. “Caucasian, on the other hand,” is an outmoded racial category; does it refer to looks? ‘Blood’? Birthplace?
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Click to reveal strategies and text.There is no definition of problem solving stated in the text, but the definition above is implied. You can clarify that problem solving does not just pertain to math problems; it also involves figuring out the punch line of a joke, solving mysteries, or resolving a conflict. [If you have time, you could insert your favorite joke, and/or a brain teaser, or mystery.]Trial and error: examples of the third point include guessing the square root of an unusual number, or guessing how to drive to a specific address in another state. An example coming up is the word jumble.Another (not essential) point you can make is that trial and error is tempting when you don’t know what else to do, or you’re in a hurry, although often it ends up taking longer.More about algorithms: --You could substitute “strategy” or “logical procedure” for “method.” --Algorithms are generally guaranteed to generate a solution, either because they are systematic or because they have been previously proven to work (this applies more to mathematics).You could mention that beyond the realm of problem-solving, there are other heuristics we’ll be encountering (which we use in making decisions or forming judgments), such as the availability heuristic.
Click to reveal bullets.The text’s examples of algorithms might seem to students like examples of trial and error, so these slides aim to clarify these examples. There are also other slides to supplement or replace the text’s examples.
No animation.The text’s examples of algorithms might seem to students like examples of trial and error, so these slides aim to clarify those examples. There are also other slides to supplement or replace the text’s examples.
Click to reveal three examples.Don’t bother going through the math on this one; the fact that the math algorithm is laboriously complex is exactly the point. After we have shown when algorithms are better than trial and error, now this slide shows that heuristics can be better, or at least faster, than algorithms. We can take this example one step further through the text and credit the power ofinsight: if thin rectangles waste fence, and the skinniest rectangle has almost no area at all, then a square is best. In fact, corners waste fence; a circle would be even better. I devised this math problem and the solution on my own, but got help drawing the curve; it was graph generated at webgraphing.com from my formula: y axis = x times 0.5(100-2x), or y = 50x – x2.
Click to reveal bullets. Final click will flash an apple, which is the answer to the question in the study.Previous editions of the book have noted that animals, especially primates, show sudden leaps in solution-making when confronted with complex problems. For example, they can realize that fruit can be reached by using a short stick to reach a longer stick that in turn can reach the fruit, or realize that boxes can be stacked and climbed. We don’t know if the animals feel the same sense of satisfaction as humans when they solve a problem.
No animation.Clarification: “tiled” means covered with a flat layer of dominoes, only going to the current edge, not filling the area of the two missing squares.Insight: because each domino will cover one black and one pink square, it is not possible for it to work. Even though 62 is divisible by 2, there are now two more black squares than pink squares. This problem is attributed to Martin Gardner.
Click to reveal bullets on left. The upcoming section on decision-making/judgment will help clarify that last bullet point.Click to reveal sidebar about Peter Wason’s test. To test the “even numbers” theory, students should try out NON-even numbers (odd numbers, fractions, negative numbers) to find examples which would disprove their theory. Finding that these numbers did not fit the rule would make them more scientifically sure that their theory was correct. However, it is our tendency to add to our confidence by trying out information which would confirm our theory (in this case, more even numbers).Next: tests not in the book. This is one of the hardest yet more important concepts in the course, in my opinion, so we’ll try it in up to three more ways.
No animation.This test is harder for most people than the real-life situation.Flipping over the A could confirm or disprove the claim.Flipping over the D tells us nothing; we have no claim about cards with consonants on one side.Flipping over the 6 is crucial, but often missed because even numbers are not mentioned in the claim; if there is a vowel on the other side, then the claim is not true, because flipping it back over, there is NOT an odd number on the other side of the vowel.Flipping over the 7 is a chance to confirm the claim, but it cannot be used to really test the claim; if there is a consonant on the other side, then the card is irrelevant, because we have no claim about cards with consonants, only a claim about cards with vowels.So…. the answer is the first and third cards.
Click to reveal text boxes.“Good” science is about challenging our theories to see if they hold up under a search for disconfirming evidence. To do this, we need to find cases of kids who do NOT eat candy. If any of them have ADHD anyway, this would disprove our hypothesis. This slide fits the text here, but you could hit this important concept twice by using this slide (and others) to introduce this concept earlier when talking about research methods, or when talking about hindsight bias and the overconfidence error.Note that almost all claims regarding evolutionary psychology (such as, “it may have had survival value”) do not meet this high standard.
Automatic animation.The text refers initially to fixation and mental set as “obstacles” to problem solving, but later implies that these two related concepts have their good and bad sides. Mental set and fixation, like heuristics, are useful in solving problems more quickly. The downside is that these tendencies keep us from being able to come up with new approaches to solving new kinds of problems. A good quotation from the text: “As a perceptual set predisposes what we perceive, a mental set predisposes how we think.”
Click to reveal each sequence and then the answer.Instructor: The first two lines are a test of whether they have done the reading, though I have added one extra in each line.The last two would be easier if the others had not been done first. The third one might be tempting to see as days of the week at first.The last one might be seen as another sequence, when it’s just the first initials of the first bullet point.Another point to make in the middle of the last paragraph: priming that establishes a mental set can occur by going through several problems that can be solved with similar methods. This can be demonstrated with math, but enough math for today, let’s use the examples from the book. Answers: O, T, T, F, F, S, S (numbers)J, F, M, A, M, J, J (months)S, M, T, N, U, O, V, P, W, Q, X, R, Y, S, Z (alternating alphabet)W, I, N, I, T, S ? (initial letters of the words in the question at top)
Click to reveal answer.This type of fixation has been called functional fixedness. The assumption which makes this problem difficult is that the problem must be solved in two dimensions.
On click, a solution will appear on screen.There is still fixation here: seeing the dots as points rather than as discs.
On click, a solution will appear on screen.
Click to reveal bullets on left. Click to reveal sidebar about making quick judgments.
Click through to reveal text boxes.A good quote from the text: “Dramatic outcomes make us gasp; probabilities, we hardly grasp.”
Click to reveal bullets.Regarding the last bullet point: we may not be predisposed to fear a deadly activity with no confinement or heights such as riding a motorcycle.
Click to reveal examples.Instructor: please clarify from the beginning that we are talking about a thinking error--a prediction/judgment mistake--and not an emotion or personality trait of “confidence”, although the two may tend to occur together in the same person. Ask students to give examples to test their overconfidence in having mastered this concept.In some studies, confidence in our guesses seems to be inversely correlated with accuracy. Suggest an application: simply scanning through the textbook before a test, you may make a judgment that you know the material well. Test for the overconfidence error by having someone ask you to define and give an example of the concepts.
Click to reveal all bullets in each column.Overconfident people may gain social power--other people are more likely to follow someone who sounds sure of themselves than someone who sounds unsure but turns out to be accurate.Keep track of when you were wrong--you might become more realistic in your judgments, and people might want to be around someone who respects their opinions.
Click to reveal all bullets in each column.The definition of belief perseverance is from the text. A restatement of the definition you can use: “we tend to defend our current ideas, our sense of what is true, when given information that doesn’t fit our ideas.”Why do I say “we”?...because these are common human tendencies.Why do I add the word “error” to these titles?...because the traits here lead to errors in judgment, such as choosing confidence or mental comfort over a search for the truth. Stereotypes are maintained by this error; people often disregard examples contradicting stereotypes by treating the new information as merely an exception, and not a challenge to the rule.
No animation.Instructor: belief perseverance might sound like confirmation bias to some students. They both sound like “not being open minded.” This is an optional slide to help make the distinction, since students may get them mixed up if both are options in a multiple choice test question.
Click to play out first and second animations.Thinking about the five percent failure rate is more likely to get us thinking about what happens if the condom fails; the moving frame represents the shift in where our attention is focused depending on how the issue (here, the condom reliability) is described/framed.
Click through examples and answers.How to use it well: You can connect past slides to this one by noting, “We have examined some of the pitfalls to watch out for in using intuitive, quick style of making decisions and forming judgments. In general, careful reasoning is better for complex decisions and judgments.”“Is intuition all bad? Let’s talk about the good aspects of intuition, starting with some research about an unconscious process that makes our decision better: incubation.”Editor’s note: note how the explanations under “How it may have been adaptive” are purely speculative guesswork and meet none of the standards of “good science” given a few slides earlier.
Click to reveal definitions of convergent and divergent thinking.How do people produce something new? Do some people have more creative ability than others?Note that this definition of creativity is slightly different than the definition for creative intelligence, which is not just concerned with the production of ideas but also with the function of those ideas. Creative intelligence involves using creativity to adapt to novel situations.There is no correct answer to the question about chess. Some might say that playing well is more about expertise and practice, while others might note that at the highest levels, someone has to be generating new options, new strategies, and counterstrategies. See if students can come up with examples of creativity beyond the artistic vocations. Possible answers include entrepreneurship, generating hypotheses and explanations in science, generating and proving theorems in mathematics, and inventive problem solving in any form of engineering. One last example familiar to most college students that may generate debate: is it creative, or just derivative/rip-off, when people do mashups (videos, music, images) involving sampling of the work of others?
Click to show blocks.These are ideas of Robert Sternberg (b. 1949), the same researcher who wrote about three general areas of intelligence. These “components” are really contributing factors that help foster creative production.You can add comments to each of these, using the analogy of playing with blocks. For example, expertise: the building blocks we use to build new ideas.imagination: the ability to see new ways that the blocks could fit together.venturesome personality: the willingness to manipulate the blocks and try combinations that might not work.intrinsic motivation: the desire to build with the blocks just because it’s fun, even when no one is watching or suggesting it.creative environment: having a place you can play and build with the blocks as much as you want, with help available if you want it.
Click to reveal bullets.These strategies may work especially well for creative problem-solving, but also may work for creative artistic expression.
Click to reveal bullets.Seeing Alex the parrot answer questions like “what color bigger” and “what shape 4” (what color is the item that is bigger, and what shape is the item of which there are four) certainly gets the observer thinking about thinking.In the videos hosted by Alan Alda, there is an image of seals or sea lions being able to deduce that a symbol they’ve never seen before fits in the category of ‘number’ based on logical deductions from rules and information they’ve established. It’s amazing seeing the seal get rewarded for choosing “#” in one session and then NOT choose it the next moment, choosing something different because the category is different. Ideas that this is simply operant conditioning get really stretched here, though the strictest behaviorists will never be convinced that thinking meaningfully exists in any species.
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Click to reveal bullets.How do they know that dolphins, apes, elephants, and social birds can recognize themselves in a mirror, while dogs and cat cannot (which is why they’ll fight with a reflection)? This can be determined because these animals and birds were shown to use the mirror to help see as they rubbed off a substance such as some chalk they could not see without the mirror. The “social birds” (corvids, such as magpies and crows) have other amazing social skills such as apparent deception. They hide something when another bird is watching and then move it when the other bird is gone.Nature, Wildlife and the Environment 2 WL002385Sheep Elephant:
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Click to reveal bullets on left. Click to reveal sidebar and bullets.What is language made of?In a spoken language, we have phonemes, the smallest units of sound (vowels and consonants), which combine in various ways to form meaningful patterns.For alphabet-based written languages, in place of phonemes but roughly corresponding to them, we have graphemes such as letters.English uses only about 40 of a possible 869 different phonemes used in speech across the 500+ languages of the world.
Pause after the first bullet to let the word list go by. This is intended to depict the rapid rate of word acquisition of children.
No animation.I have not made the definitions for “receptive” and “productive” explicit, but in case it’s not intuitive: “Receptive” means understanding the language you hear and see (and later, read), while“productive” means creating meaningful communication (speaking/signing, and later, writing).About the babbling transition by 10 months: for a discussion question, you can ask students if the loss of production of non-household language sounds by the infants reminds them of anything. We’re probing here for the idea of pruning, the withering of neural connections that aren’t being used. Not producing non-native sounds is useful because it allows the development of speech that accurately fits the language being used at home.We may have to replace the term“telegraphic” one of these decades; analogies are supposed to have explanatory power and are not supposed to require explanation. How about “Tweet”? Although unlike telegraphs, tweets are not billed by the word, there is a premium on not wasting characters, so words are more likely to be missing. See if students can guess the meaning of “Go park,” in toddler speak: it’s not about going to park the car, but instead a request/demand to go to the park. “Ree book” is a request to read a book. If these seem obvious to your students, how about: “Green now!”…. an exclamation that the stoplight has changed.
Click to reveal bullets.You can add to the first bullet point: Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) believed that even syntax and grammar seem to be inborn. This is still a matter of debate. However, there are some universal word order preferences, and nouns do tend to be learned before verbs and adjectives. Trivia: which of the “syllables” on the left relates to genes?...GACT, Guanine Adenine Cytosine Thymine, the four bases forming the main components of DNA.
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Click to reveal bullets.You may want to see if students agree with this quotation or can picture what is meant by each part of the quote. Or, you can talk about why Helen Keller (1880-1968) might have a unique perspective on these issues since she lacked the use of both senses.Regarding the second and third bullet points, you can give it some impact by saying, “Imagine being brought up without exposure to language, with no one ever speaking to you. This would prevent language from developing, perhaps ever, and you would feel cut off. This would be considered child maltreatment. Yet this is what happens if a deaf child is brought up with family and classmates who do not use sign language.
Click to reveal pictures and descriptions.Before clicking to reveal the brain pictures, see if students can guess/recall which hemisphere of the brain is more likely to be damaged if there are problems with language. Answer: the left hemisphere, the one that can express itself verbally in split-brain patients.French physician Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) and German neurologist Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) learned about the function of their respective eponymous parts of the brain by studying the language difficulties of patients who had those parts damaged.Why can someone with Broca’s aphasia sing a song?...perhaps because it is reproduced as one string of sounds, not assembled from many bits of meaning.Comprehension test: why would people with both types of aphasia have difficulty repeating someone else’s spoken words?Someone with Broca’s aphasia is able to understand what the other person said but not put the words together to say it back; Someone with Wernicke’s aphasia is able to speak but not able to understand what was said, which prevents being able to say it back.
No animation.Instructor: this image is from an older edition of the book, not in the current edition, and thus there won’t be questions about it in the test banks. It is included here as an illustration of all the complex process that go on below our conscious awareness in order to do something as “simple” as reading a word.
Click to reveal bullets and sidebar bullets.Fleshing out first bullet point: some would say that dogs are trained by rewards to respond to a pattern of sounds (same with humans, maybe?), but this doesn’t explain why a dog can retrieve a named object it’s never heard before, by process of elimination from the ones it does know, without a reward.Second bullet point: is this language?It certainly involves sounds representing objects and other concepts, but it does not involve grammar, i.e. meaning derived from word order.
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Click to reveal bullets.Extreme forms of linguistic determinism are in disfavor, but a more moderate version remains controversial. The reality about the Hopi may have been that they are not able to demonstrate how they think about the past, or perhaps, although their memory is intact, they do not think about the past in the same way.About the last question: I suggest looking up and finding some of your favorites from a list of “sniglets”: words for objects, actions, and states that our language does not seem to have a name for (but should).
Click to reveal text boxes.Is language the cause or the effect of this difference in self vs. other emphasis? We know that these cultures differ, with American/English culture being more self-focused. This may explain the language differences. But then, does the language shape our thinking if we learn the language?However, does this demonstrate a difference in personality or a difference in how it is expressed?Over time, in speaking a different language, would we begin to behave differently to fit the new way we are describing ourselves?The Tarahumara people of Mexico do not have different words for blue and green.The book talks about separations at A or B. I wonder if students will see the blue/green separation after the very leftmost square. Maybe students could be asked about where they consider the split to be between blue and turquoise, or blue and teal.
Click to reveal all text.“When a lawyer shops for a watch, he should choose it to fit his personal preferences and his workplace” could become “A lawyer should choose a watch to fit personal preferences and the workplace.”People’s main protests to gender neutral language is that it is cumbersome (which it doesn’t need to be; in fact, sentences can be streamlined without all the pronouns) and that it’s unnecessary (that “everyone knows that “man” means “humans”). This is where the example from the book comes in: “man, like other mammals, nurses his young.” Wasn’t there a glitch in imagery upon hearing/reading that sentence?
Click to reveal bullets.Does this partly explain the lower ADHD rates in Europe compared to the United States--that bilingualism improves executive functioning, self-control, impulse inhibition, and resisting giving attention to irrelevant information?Or is it just that the genetically impulsive populations of Europe are the ones who chose to get on a boat and go to the United States?
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Click to reveal bullets.Points 1-3 are Jim Foley’s conclusions based on the text, for you to present if you agree; students should know they won’t be tested on this material.
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Click to reveal bullets.It is hard to argue with this definition of intelligence other than to point out that it’s pretty much a tautology (a circular reasoning statement that really doesn’t say much). However, the text goes out on a limb and puts a little meaning into the concept (next slide).
No animationNote that this definition from the text makes reference to knowledge, and correlates with it, but is focused on ability, especially adaptability. Not surprisingly, psychologists tend to define “intelligence” in a way that allows psychologists to fit the definition. The picture from the text is meant to represent the “understanding of plants.”
Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: see if students can guess what is not clearly stated in the text, that “g” stands for “general.” This may be a good demonstration of hindsight bias; it will seem obvious if told, but not so obvious if you right away ask, “why did he call this ‘g’?”Factor analysis is a statistical technique to determine how different variables relate to each other, for example whether they form clusters that tend to vary together (correlate).
Click to reveal bullets. The last bullet can be deleted if you’re going to use the slide “Critique of Multiple Intelligence Theories.”Stephen Wiltshire (b. 1974) is limited in his social and overall cognitive skills by autism, but has extraordinary visual memory. Wiltshire was able to draw this picture of the Tokyo skyline from memory after a 30-minute helicopter ride and a view from the top of a skyscraper. The existence of the savant syndrome suggests that intelligence can exist in parts.Click to reveal Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences.Narrative linking to above: “Howard Gardner feels that even discounting the “savant syndrome,” different people have different strengths.” Acknowledging all of these abilities means honoring strengths and success in areas other than verbal and math ability.
No animation.In case a student asks, Howard Gardner has considered adding “moral” intelligence and “spiritual”/”existential” intelligence to his list, but does not consider them to have adequate empirical support.
Click to show three types.This is referred to as the “triarchic” (three-part) model.The first type of intelligence is the best fit for the early definition we encountered in this chapter: intelligence is what intelligence tests measure.The definition of “practical” intelligence, like the example earlier of the rainforest resident who understands plants, is hard to separate from the concept of expertise. This intelligence may include expertise but also include the ability to handle situations that do not draw just upon previous experience. Some people are skilled with fixing machines or managing people, even when it’s a situation they have never seen before.
Click to reveal bullets.Optional slide: this critique is suggested on the first slide about multiple intelligences.
Automatic animation.Note that these definitions link emotional intelligence to social intelligence. The four components of emotional intelligence on the next slide also correlate with social success. This means that other emotional skills, such as modulating extreme emotions (e.g. staying mentally healthy) are less central to this definition, except as they relate to social success.
Click to reveal more about each component.Introducing this slide: “emotional intelligence can be defined by four components identified on a test by Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2002, 2008):”In this case, “modulating” means not allowing emotions get out of control; having one’s emotions be a connective rather than a disruptive force in social situations.Click to reveal sidebar.The second bullet point relates to the struggles of people on the autism spectrum who have difficulty in this area and sometimes in all areas of emotional intelligence, even if overall intelligence test scores are in the normal range.
Click to reveal bullets.The plan, and the hope of France’s minister of public education, was to assess children in a systematic way rather than relying on teacher judgment (which might be biased, but was also not “scientific” even if it was more accurate).
Click to reveal bullets.Alfred Binet’s assumed that all children follow the same course of development, some going more quickly, others more slowly. This implied that children with lower ability were mainly delayed, not disabled. Tests attempted to measure “mental age”--how far the child had come along on the “normal” developmental pathway.
Click to reveal bullets.Answer to the question on the slide: the 10-year-old is scored as 8/10 x 100 = 80.You can now ask students: “Is William Stern’s calculation of IQ a better way of presenting a score than “mental age?” Lets test it by seeing if it works with adults, as Terman hoped. What IQ do you get if a 16 year old scores as well as a 20 year old (20/16 = 5/4 = IQ 125). Now try it with a 50 year old scoring as well as a typical 20 year old. Oops…IQ would be 20/50... IQ = 40.Coming up soon, under the topic of standardization, is a new way of calculating IQ by simply comparing your raw score to the general population of adults who took the test. We will soon see why the book says here, “about 2/3 of people fall between 85 and 115 [in IQ].”Terman proposed using IQ tests to classify children; he believed IQ was inherited and was the strongest predictor of one's ultimate success in life. Terman was a prominent member of the Human Betterment Foundation, which supported the promotion and enforcement of compulsory and involuntary sterilization laws in California.
Click to reveal bullets.Eugenics is the idea that society can be improved by deliberate selection, that is, keeping people with undesired traits from reproducing. Thus, Terman’s hypothetical comment about removing inferior genes from the population. It is not clear whether Terman’s changing views about influences on test scores changed his views of whether people could be improved or still had “inferior” genes.Eugenics has been making a comeback in recent years with the development of new reproductive technologies. Once again, it is supported by many researchers and psychologists. Distinguished scientists, including several Nobel Prize-winners, have supported genetic screening bordering on eugenics. James Watson, the American biologist who helped discover DNA in 1953, said in 2003 that he backed genetic manipulation to make people more intelligent and better looking. “If you really are stupid, I would call that a disease,” he said. “The lower 10 percent who really have difficulty, even in elementary school, what's the cause of it? A lot of people would like to say, ‘Well, poverty, things like that.’ It probably isn't. So I'd like to get rid of that, to help the lower 10 percent.”--Richard Ingram, “EUGENICS: Stupidity should be cured—Watson,” DarwinAwards, 19 June 2003, at http://www.darwinawards.com/old/main200306a.html.Remind students that attitudes like this were prevalent in Germany during World War II.
Click to reveal bullets and graphic.Why do we say that aptitude should correlate with intelligence? Because according to one definition, intelligence refers to an ability to adapt and handle challenges, and is not a measure of existing knowledge. By this definition, “intelligence” would give one more aptitude, more likelihood of performing well in the future. Remind students that this is a scatterplot; it’s as if each blue dot is a person positioned by that person’s SAT and IQ scores.Notice that although there is a strong correlation (+.82) in this sample of 14- to 21- year olds, the SAT separates out some above-average IQ people from others. In other words, IQ scores do not do a good job of distinguishing among people with IQ’s over 120 (presuming the SATs measure anything meaningful at all). You can remind students that men typically do better than women on SATs, yet women have a greater success rate in college; why do they think this is?
No animation.WAIS and WISC Tests measure intelligence, but the results include subscores for:verbal comprehension, processing speed, perceptual organization, and working memory (the resequencing and recall of letters and numbers). items include: describing similarities and differences between objects or between concepts. doing math problems, presented as story problems, while being timed. being tested on speed of decoding, translating symbols to numerals. assembling blocks into prescribed patterns while being timed (pictured in the text and on this slide). digit span retention and re-ordering (working memory). vocabulary knowledge and general knowledge. question and sentence comprehension and expression. arranging related pictures in chronological/story sequence. picture completion.
Click to reveal bullets.Standardization, in the form described here, has also been called “norming” a test. ‘Norming” refers to determining what the “norm” is for typical, randomly selected people taking the test, so that you can compare an individual score to the norm. This norm is described by the normal curve, which we’ll see again on the next slide.
Click to highlight the curve and again for the next question.The answer to the question on the slide: if your raw score was higher than 98 percent of the people, your IQ would be around 130, the score at which about 2.1 percent of the population scored higher.
Click to reveal bullets about reliability.Question at the bottom: If your height was measured with a ruler made of stretchy material, it would not be a reliable ruler, you would not get a consistent number when measuring height.Question for understanding: how does this stretchy ruler fail the two tests of reliability? Click to reveal bullets about validity.The yardstick, though reliable, would not be a valid measure of height.
No animation.Even though younger people have faster processing speed, the better vocabulary of older people allows them to complete crossword puzzles more quickly. It looks like people at about age 63 might do best.Note that this slide presupposes that there are different kinds of intelligence; does this imply the single-number IQ score is problematic?
Click to reveal bullets.The wisdom that comes with age may include social understanding, humility, and expert knowledge about life in general. Our thinking may become less distorted by emotional factors.Fluid intelligence allows the young to make great contributions in mathematics; crystallized intelligence allows the old to make great contributions in literature.
Click to reveal bullets.The child in the picture at the top left has Down syndrome. He is shown happily painting in a classroom with children of varying abilities. The child in the picture at bottom right is in a college statistics class; he is 10 years old. At both ends of the intellectual aptitude spectrum, labeling and tracking children has the danger of becoming a self fulfilling prophecy because of the power of expectations and the availability of educational opportunities. Education of all children in an integrated classroom can prevent these problems, although they require greater individualization to assure appropriate levels of challenge.
Click to reveal bullets.Note that no commonly accepted definition of “successful” exists so that the entire question is probably better suited to philosophy than psychology. You might ask students to try to define “success”—socioeconomic status? self-reported claims to happiness? achievement (another difficult word to define)? celebrity status? public acclaim?
Click to show questions and answers about the graph.The first two bars differ because of differences in rearing/environment, since the genetics did not change; rearing the twins apart reduced the similarity. The first and third bar may differ because of genetics, since they were reared together in both cases; having more identical genes increased the similarity of intelligence scores.
Click to reveal bullets.The slide has appeared before in the chapter on nature and nurture. The heritability of a trait also does NOT tell us whether genetics explain differences between groups/populations. Height is 90 percent heritable in general, but as a group, people are taller in this century than last, or in South Korea compared to North Korea. This is probably not caused by genetics but by nurture (nutrition). Click to reveal sidebar bullets.Note: there is a similar slide in the “Nature-Nurture” chapter which originally used intelligence as the example and now has been revised to discuss sociability.Of course identical nurture is not possible; tiny differences, even in utero, can begin the epigenetic process of turning genes on and off.
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to reveal chart.Answer: birth/biological parents. This will seem counterintuitive to many students. Suggest that they notice that their parents may be having increasingly less influence on their talents. You may want to restate this result in a way that ties back to the heritability concept; the heritability of intelligence test scores increases with age.
Click to reveal bullets.When environment/nurture varies more, its influence on intelligence increases. Pictured in the slide is a Romanian orphan who suffered from deprivation of human interaction. The impact of tutored enrichment can be compared to the impact of multi-vitamins, which make a bigger difference for those who were malnourished than for those who eat healthy meals. The impact of educational videos does not seem to be great for any group, especially when it substitutes for face to face interaction.
Click to reveal bullets. Instructor: you might ask students, “What might it imply about intelligence test scores if they can be affected by schooling and attitude?”
Click to reveal bullets.
No animation.Instructor: clarify for students that this graph of scores by IQ level does not replace the normal curve. It IS the same people in the normal curve, but split into percentage male and percentage female. Males with IQ ‘x’ plus females at IQ ‘x’ equals 100 percent of the people at IQ ‘x’.You can ask students, then, what they can say about boys and girls and their ranges of IQ scores? A final click reveals an answer at the bottom of the slide.
Click to reveal bullets.Question to raise with students: do you think that these differences are caused by genetics and strengths developed through natural selection, or because boys and girls are raised differently?
After you have clicked and the classroom picture and moving rock have disappeared, have students do the “male” block configuration test first. Please practice using this slide in slide show mode.[Answer: the two right most circles. I moved and rotated some of the ones from the text to make it harder to simply look at the book for answers]Then do the “female” object location memory test: ask who can remember where the rock started and where it ended up.
Click to animate graph. Click to reveal remaining bullets.The following statement perhaps gives too much away before seeing if students can figure out the concept on the next slide, but I included here as material for explaining the next slide: “But first we must train ourselves to see that differences between groups can be caused by environmental factors (even identical twins can have differences in height, sexuality, and ability).Remind students that even the term “African American” has little or no meaning; is it self-defined or can someone determine who fits in this category? Do Egyptians and Algerians count? Are Bantu peoples to be lumped in with Khoisan? Is the American “one drop of blood” rule to be used to determine “African American-ness,” or a different standard from Brazil or Trinidad?Remind students that a future slide notes that racial categories are not distinct genetically.
No animation.Instructor: have students think about what they assume causes the difference between the two groups of flowers. After you ask this question and hear some answers, click to reveal that both groups of flowers are from the same seed packet. Again, even identical twins can have differences in height, sexuality, and ability.
Click to reveal bullets.
Click to reveal bullets.Click to reveal sidebar bullets.A question to ask students to test their learning: “what quality of good tests have we just identified in the last sentence?”...predictive validity.Angela Garcia, executive director of the SAT program, defended the prompt: “It’s really about pop culture as a reference point that they would certainly have an opinion on.” You might ask students if they agree.Note: “racial” differences persist on skills such as repeating digits backward. Do these skills also depend on cultural experience?
Click to reveal three questions.Instructor: Simple answer to all three questions: They fell victim to the effect known in psychology as Stereotype Threat (explained next slide). You can change the title of the slide if you just want to test students on the name of the concept, or you can ask them to explain how it works before you go to the next slide.NOTE: Some students may be uncomfortable with the way the terms "Black" and even "race" are used in the study cited by the text. Although we can't make an exact determination of someone's race, we can determine whether someone identifies themselves as being part of a stereotypically lower-status group, and that's what's relevant in this study, that's what apparently triggered the effects on performance, as we'll see on the next slide.
Click to reveal bullets.A self fulfilling prophecy occurs when the act of making a prediction about the future leads to that prediction coming true. Is stereotype threat an example of a self fulfilling prophecy? The book’s definition of stereotype threat includes “self-confirming” as part of the definition. One possible implication of the stereotype threat is that programs to support members of minority groups may hurt people’s performance when they imply that minorities need more help than others, especially when it is implied that help is needed inherently rather than situationally (the fundamental attribution error). Of course, this implication needs to be measured versus other factors (such as ongoing discrimination or socio-economic disadvantage).
PSY 150 403 Chapter 9 SLIDES
by Jim Foley
Thinking and language are
two talents that are
part of being human.
how unique are these
talents to humans?
in what ways are these
talents better suited for
survival than for
thinking like a scientist?
Thinking and Language Questions
How do we form concepts, make
judgments, solve problems, and make decisions?
How does our intuitive thinking style, though it
may help us survive, lead us astray?
How does language work in words and in the
brain, and how unique is human language?
How do thought and language work together?
Topics to Think About
The effects of
Framing on judgment
Cognitive skills in
Thinking, a.k.a. Cognition
Cognition refers to mental
activities and processes
thinking, knowing, remember
ing, and communicating
Cognition can include reasoning, judgment, and
assembling new information into knowledge.
Cognition also supports these other psychological
attention, emotion, consciousness, perception, learni
ng, memory, language, mental health, and social
Pieces of Cognition:
is a mental grouping
objects, events, stat
es, ideas, and/or
A concept can
by an image, or
by a word such
How do we form/learn concepts?
We think we form concepts by definitions. For
example, we define a triangle as an object with three
But is this how we actually form concepts?
Often, we form concepts by developing prototypes, that
is, mental images of the best example of a concept.
What is your definition of “chair”?
What is your prototype of “chair”?
Which of these fit the “chair” concept?
The Urge to Categorize
What was the
percentage Asian in
What was the
percentage Caucasian in
the second blended
We tend to
When Prototypes Fail Us
Prototypes fail us when examples stretch our
definitions, as in considering whether a stool
is a chair.
Prototypes fail us when the boundary
between concepts is fuzzy, as in judging bluegreen colors or computer-blended faces.
Prototypes fail us when examples contradict
our prototypes, such as considering whether
a whale is a mammal, or a penguin is a bird.
Problem solving refers to the thinking
we do in order to answer a complex
question or to figure out how to resolve
an unfavorable situation.
Trial and error involves trying various possible
solutions, and if that fails, trying others.
• When it’s useful: perfecting an invention like the
light bulb by trying a thousand filaments
• When it fails: when there is a clear solution but
trial and error might miss it forever
An algorithm is a step by step strategy for solving a
problem, methodically leading to a specific solution.
A heuristic is a short-cut, step-saving thinking strategy
or principle which generates a solution quickly (but
possibly in error).
Insight refers to a sudden realization, a leap forward
in thinking, that leads to a solution.
Clarifying Problem Solving Examples
Where’s To find a
juice? Do I look on every
specific item in
shelf in the store, or do I
search where there is
Wander around a
randomly to find it.
methodical path to
make sure you
check every single
Check only related
Trial and Error vs. Algorithms
To solve a word jumble, you can use:
Trial and error--randomly trying different
combinations in no particular order
An algorithm (below)--carefully checking every single
combination beginning with the letter “C” before
moving on to a different starting letter.
1. C L O O Y S P H Y G
2. C O L O Y S P H Y G
3. C O O L Y S P H Y G…
The problem with using trial and error to solve a word jumble is
that there are 782,200 (10!/(2!*2!)) different ways to combine
those letters. At least with the algorithm method, you are sure
to get through them all without counting any of them twice.
Three Methods of Problem Solving
Problem: given 100 one-foot lengths of fence, construct a
rectangle that encloses the biggest area.
Trial and error approach:
make a lot of rectangles
For each width: Total Area
Algorithm approach: rectangle of unknown width
Maximum area is
when width is
25, which means
all sides are 25
Different values for Width
Area = Width times length = W times half of
what’s left after making the widths, or ½ (1002W). We could graph all the different W’s and
all the areas produced by different values for
W, but instead of trial and area we graphed a
function, Area = W x ½(100-2W), or Area = 50x
– x2,, which makes a parabola, shown at the
left. Notice that at W = 25, the area is at a
maximum, and length = ½(100-2(25)) = 25
Heuristic: a square encloses the most area
Insight: The “Aha” Moment
Insight refers to a
realization, a leap
thinking, that leads
to a solution.
We say “aha” and
feel a sense of
an answer seems
to pop into our
We also may
Insight and the Brain
In one study, participants monitored by
fMRI and EEG were asked, “which word will
form a compound word with the words
pine, crab, and sauce?”
What the brains did along with the “aha!”
of getting the answer:
1. extra frontal lobe
2. experiencing the
“aha!” moment and
stating the answer
3. a burst of activity in
right temporal lobe
A Use of Insight
to Find the Right Heuristic
Problem: can the 62
squares of this clipped
chess-board be tiled
How did you arrive at
Obstacles to Effective
There are certain tendencies in human cognition
which make it more difficult to find correct
solutions to problems.
(which help solve problems
quickly but can lead to
Confirmation bias refers
to our tendency to search
for information which
confirms our current
Natural tendency: “If I’m
right, then fact “C” will
confirm my theory. I must
look for fact “C.”
Scientific practice: “If I’m
right, then fact “D” will
disprove or at least
disconfirm my theory. I
must search for fact “D.”
Studying Confirmation Bias:
Peter Wason’s Selection Test
1. He gave the sequence of
numbers “2, 4, 6.”
2. He asked students to guess
his rule, and ask him
whether other certain
numbers fit the rule.
The problem was not the
students’ theory, but their
strategy. If you think the rule
is “even numbers,” what
numbers would you need to
ask him about to TEST rather
that CONFIRM your theory?
Confirmation Bias Test
Hypothesized rule/fact: everyone who drinks alcohol at this party is
at least 21 years of age.
You meet four people about whom you know limited information:
Age is 25
Age is 18
If you could find out more about just two of these
people, which two would you investigate to help find
out whether your hypothesis is true?
Confirmation Bias Test
You are given the cards below, that have a letter on one
side and a numeral on the other side.
Claim: if a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an
odd number on the other side.
Which two cards would you turn over to find out if the
claim is true?
Confirmation Bias Test: Research
The ultimate test of our mastery of confirmation bias in
psychology might be our ability to avoid confirmation
bias in research.
If we believe that
overeating candy is
the main cause of
types of people do
we need to look for
to really test our
1. eat a lot of sugar.
2. do not eat candy.
3. have ADHD.
4. do not have ADHD.
Other Problem-Solving Habits
The tendency to
approach problems using
a mindset (procedures
and methods) that has
The tendency to get
stuck in one way of
thinking; an inability
to see a problem from
a new perspective.
Mental Set: Demonstration
What is next in these sequences?
O, T, T, F, F, ___, ___,
J, F, M, A, M, ___, ___,
S, M, T, N, U, ___, ___,
W, I, N, I, T, ___?
O,T,T,F,F, S, S (numbers)
J,F,M,A,M, J, J (months)
W, I, N, I, T, S ?
If you are “primed” to use a certain problem-solving
strategy, you can form a mental set that makes it harder
to solve a new, similar problem.
Problem: how can you arrange six
matches to form four equilateral
When people struggle with this, what
fixation is going on?
Hint: what assumption might be fixed in
Our mental set, perhaps from our past
experiences with matchsticks, assumes
we are arranging them in two
Fixation: The Nine-dot Problem
Use four straight
lines to connect
the nine dots.
the box. Literally.
Nine-dot Problem: The Sequel
Can you use only THREE straight lines to
connect these nine dots?
The human cognitive style
of making judgments and
decisions is more efficient
The quickacting, automatic source
of ideas we use instead of
careful reasoning is
known as intuition.
Using intuition to make a
decision has some
downsides, as we’ll soon
see, but it also has some
Making Quick Judgments
As with problem-solving, there
are mental habits which make
simpler and quicker, but may
lead to errors:
1. the availability heuristic
3. belief perseverance
All of these habits enable us
to quickly make hundreds of
small “gut” decisions each day
without bothering with
The Availability Heuristic
We use the availability
heuristic when we estimate
the likelihood of an event
based on how much it
stands out in our mind, that
is, how much it’s available
as a mental reference.
Example: thinking that winning at
a slot machine is likely because
we vividly recall the times we’ve
won before (thanks to
bells, lights, and flowing coins)
Why We Fear the Wrong Things
The availability heuristic misleads us about whether a
plane ride or a motorcycle ride is more dangerous.
Of the many experiences available to us in forming our
judgments, we tend to give more weight to some
experiences than others.
We know of both plane crashes and motorcycle
crashes, but the plane crashes scare us more, and stand
out more in the news and in memory.
Why do some dangers stand out more?
Perhaps biology or natural selection predisposes us to
fear heights, lack of control, and confinement… all of
which are part of our image of a plane ride.
The Overconfidence Error
judgments refers to our
tendency to be more
confident than correct.
We overestimate the
accuracy of our
estimates, predictions, an
thinking you can
put off work and
still get it done
thinking you have
you scan it and it
Question: Why do we tend to be
overconfident even though it
leads to false convictions, bad
investments, and disappointing
Answer: It may have had
overconfidence allows quick
feeling certainty reduces
stress and anxiety
overconfident people may
gain social power
When you plan to state an
opinion, prediction, or
judgment, say “I think” rather
than “I know.”
Be open to feedback and to
ASK for other
opinions, predictions, and
factors you have not
Keep track of when you were
“My mind is made up; do not You can’t cure someone
confuse me with the facts.”
else of belief perseverance.
Belief perseverance is the
Just telling someone the
tendency to hold onto our
“right” information won’t
beliefs when facing
Instead, watch for this in
We interpret information in
yourself. Take opposing
a way that fits our beliefs.
views and information
We might claim that the
seriously, always assuming
new information is
that you could be wrong.
wrong, biased, or just
“doesn’t make sense.”
Confirmation Bias vs. Belief Perseverance
bothering to seek out
contradicts your ideas
Definition: holding on to
your ideas over time, and
contradicts your ideas
Benefits and downsides:
solutions, but misses
finding out when first
guesses are wrong
Benefits and downsides:
less internal mental
conflict, but more social
Framing is the focus, emphasis, or perspective that affects
our judgments and decisions.
Example: are condoms effective if they…
percent of the
Do you want to go to a store today if prices are:
20 percent off?
of $6 off?
How to use it
How it may
We have seen that
situations, it helps
to use careful
what to eat and
reasoning to avoid
what might kill us
mistakes made by
might have helped
supports the idea
that sometimes we
need to let our
The times that our
do some work.
incorrect may not
Incubation refers to
have been fatal; if
the power of taking
a break from careful
all red plants
thinking, even to
“sleep on it,” to
allow leaps in
might have been
hungry, but still
Intuition is effective
when it is a product
of expertise built up
from trial and error;
this hones one’s
judgment to the
point of being more
accurate than logical
the sex of a
chick, making a
The mind’s ability to
judge a situation
from experience is
more efficient than
Creativity refers to the ability to
produce ideas that are novel and
[Creative intelligence involves
using those ideas to adapt to
Convergent thinking is a
left-brain activity involving
zeroing in on a single correct
Creativity uses divergent
thinking, the ability to
generate new ideas, new
actions, and multiple options
Does chess involve creativity?
Robert Sternberg’s Five
Components of Creativity
Creative environment: having
support, feedback, encouragement, a
nd time and space to think
tending to seek out new
risk, ambiguity, and
possessing a welldeveloped base of
enjoying the pursuit of
challenge, without needing
external direction or rewards
Imaginative thinking: having
the ability to see new
To Boost Creativity:
Pursue an interest until you
Allow time for incubation
(“sleeping on it”) with your
attention away from
projects, during which
unconscious connections can
Allow time for mental wandering
and aimless daydreaming with no
Improve mental flexibility by
experiencing other cultures and
ways of thinking.
Do Other Species Think?
If thinking consists of
understanding concepts, including
words, numbers, and
many creatures can memorize
the names of many objects.
Parrots can speak the names.
birds can sort objects by
shape, color, and type.
Alex the African parrot could
add numbers, and answer
complex questions such as
“what color bigger”? *“Tell me
the color of the object that is
the bigger of these two.”+
Do Other Species Think?
If thinking consists of solving
problems with insight, devising
behaviors that were not trained
or rewarded, and putting
strategies together in new
chimpanzees do not
say, “Aha,” but one showed
sudden leaps in problemsolving. After putting down a
short stick that could not
reach a fruit, he jumped up
suddenly to use that short
stick to reach a longer stick.
Do Other Species Think?
If thinking consists of using and passing on cultural
(learned, not instinctual) practices such as tool
chimpanzees have local customs for tool
use, grooming, communication, hunting, and
courtship. These are “customs”, not
they vary not by family, but by group.
they are learned/acquired by observation.
they involve varied tools and strategies, such as
crafting a flexible stick to “fish” for termites.
Animal Socio-cognitive Skills
Baboons can recognize 80
individual voices; sheep
can recognize individual
Chimpanzees and some
monkeys can read
intention in your facial
expression and actions.
Dolphins, apes, elephants,
and social birds appear to
recognize themselves in a
Language and Thought
Topics to talk about
Structure, and Use of Language
Stages of Language Development
How Language Develops: Nature, Nurture, and
Language and the Brian
Language in other Species?
Thinking and language influence each other
Thinking in images, not verbal language
Language consists of the use of
symbols to represent, transmit, and
Symbols include organized patterns
of sounds, visual
representations, and movements.
concepts, quantities, plans, identity,
feelings, ideas, facts, and customs.
Language: Uses and Structure
We can hear about
phenomena we have
We can connect to
people far away.
We can make plans
and have others carry
We can know what
another person is
thinking more directly
than just by observing
We can store
What is language made of?
Phonemes are the
smallest units of sound
(vowels and consonants).
Morphemes are the units
of meaning, i.e. words and
meaningful parts of words
such as suffixes, prefixes).
Grammar refers to the
rules for using
semantics, definitions, con
notations, and syntax (how
the order of words makes
How do we learn language?
Language Development is an Amazing Process
We acquire the use of 10 new words per
day (on average) between ages 2 and 18.
Children learn the basic grammar of
language before they can add 2 + 2.
Most kids can recall words and
meanings, and assemble words into
sentences, while simultaneously following
social rules for speaking and listening.
How do we learn language?
Language Talents and Stages
0-4 months Receptive language: associating sounds with facial
movements, and recognizing when sounds are broken
(“not speaking”) into words
Productive language: babbling in multilingual sounds
Babbling sounds more like the parents’/household’s
One-word stage: understanding and beginning to say
18-24 months Two-word, “telegraphic”/tweet speech: addingbird!
and making sentences but missing words (“See
Ree book? Go park!”)
Speaking full sentences and understanding complex
Explaining Language Acquisition:
Nature and Nurture
The Role of Genes
We seem to have an inborn (genetic) talent for
acquiring language, though no particular kind
of language is in the genes.
The Role of Experience
We also seem to have a “statistical” pattern
recognition talent. Infants quickly recognize
patterns in syllable frequency and
sequence, preparing them to later learn words
According to one study with
immigrants, beginning a
language later made it
harder to learn the
pronunciation and the
grammar of the second
It is important to begin
exposure/education early so
that language centers of the
brain continue to develop.
Language might never
develop if not begun by age
Deaf and blind children can use
complex adapted languages by
using other senses that are
Sign language has the
syntax, grammar, and complex
meaning of any spoken
“Blindness cuts people off from
things; deafness cuts people off
from people.”—Helen Keller
What happens if a deaf infant’s
parents don’t use sign
Hint: critical period
Brain and Language: Lessons from damage
Aphasia: an impairment in
the ability to produce or
language, usually caused by
damage to the brain
Broca’s area, in the
left temporal lobe
Damage to Broca’s area leads to
difficulty in putting words
together in sentences or even
speaking single words, although
a person can sing a song.
Examples of aphasia: having the
ability to speak but not read, to
produce words in song but not in
conversation, and to speak but not
repeat; or producing words in
Wernicke’s area, left
Damage to Wernicke’s area leads
to difficulty comprehending
speech and producing coherent
speech (not easily monitoring
one’s own speech to make sure it
Language and the Brain
How to read a word, steps 1 to 5
divided in the
Do Other Species Use Language?
Receptive language for
individual human words seems
to exist for a few species; dogs
can follow hundreds of
Productive language: many
animals have “words”:
sounds, gestures, dances (bees)
information, including different
“words” for different
objects, states, and places
Can other species
communicate with us
Washoe the chimpanzee
learned to use 245 signs to
express what she wanted
learned signs from each
other without training and
A deaf N.Y. Times reporter
visited Washoe and said, “I
realized I was conversing
with a member of another
species in my native
Is the chimp signing really language?
Washoe seemed to combine words in new ways to
convey meaning; Washoe used the phrase “apple
which is orange” for an orange (fruit).
Chimps do not pick up words as easily as human
Chimp word production lacks syntax, but a bonobo
correctly understood “make the dog bite the snake.”
Thinking and Language, Language
How does our
our use of
shape the way
Can we think
Language Influencing Thought
the idea that
how we think
For example, Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941) proposed
that because the Hopi do not have past tense forms
for verbs, it is hard for them to think about the past.
Can you think about something that you do not have
a name for? If so, does that disprove linguistic
Language’s Influence on Thought
Does language shape emotions or reflect them?
Speaking in Japanese provides many extra words for interpersonal
emotions such as sympathy and empathy, which Americans might
have trouble differentiating.
Speaking English gives us many words for self-focused
emotions, such as sadness.
Do language differences shape personality differences?
Bilingual people appear to have different personality profiles when
describing themselves in different languages.
“Learn a new language and get a new soul.”--Czech proverb.
We use our native language
to classify and to remember
colors. Different languages
may vary in where they put
the separation between
“blue” and “green,” or they
may not have separate
words for these colors.
Which squares are green?
Language Influences Thought
Even if “he” and
“mankind” are meant at
times to be genderinclusive, people do
create a male image in
their mind when they
hear these terms.
Instead of replacing “he”
with “he/she” or
“their”, we can rewrite
example, “his” can
Languages Improve Thinking
The Bilingual Advantage
People who are bilingual have
numerous brain connections
and neural networks.
They also have a hidden
talent, the ability to suppress
one language while learning
This ability tends to go along
with other forms of executive
control, such as resisting
distraction and inhibiting
Is there conscious
thinking that goes on
without being formed
decisions, such as
which turn to take
while driving, are
certainly made based
on images or other
such as mental maps.
Using Imagery to Improve
Image rehearsal can help us
improve behavior, even skilled
performance such as playing
piano or playing sports.
If you imagine getting an A
(outcome simulation), it may
shift your mood up or down
but will not improve your
grade. Imagining the detailed
actions of studying (process
simulation), though, does
Think about the road, not
Thinking affects our language, which then affects
1. Thinking in a culture affects the formation of a
language, especially its vocabulary.
2. Thinking and language develop together in an
individual as they grow.
3. Learning a language and using a language as an
adult can affect one’s style and content of
Overall question to consider:
does each of us have an inborn level of
talent, a general mental capacity or set of
abilities, and can that level be measured
and represented by a score on a test?
Definitions of intelligence
One ability or many?
The role of creativity and emotional intelligence
How to construct tests to try to assess intelligence
Intelligence stability, change, and extremes
Genetic vs. environmental influences
Group differences in ability
Racial difference or cultural test bias?
Topics: What do we mean by
Types and components of
Intelligence and creativity
“Definition” of Intelligence
Intelligence tests are a series
of questions and other
exercises which attempt to
assess people’s mental abilities
in a way that generates a
numerical score, so that one
person can be compared to
Intelligence can be defined as
“whatever intelligence tests
Your college entrance test
measures how good you are
at scoring well on that test.
Definition of Intelligence:
Beyond the Test?
The text defines
whether it’s math
ability or a rainforest
plants, as the ability
to learn from
problems, and use
knowledge to adapt
to new situations.
also known as g
Charles Spearman (1863-1945) performed a factor
analysis* of different skills and found that people who
did well in one area also did well in another. Spearman
speculated that these people had a high “g” (general
*Factor analysis refers to a statistical technique that
determines how different variables relate to each other;
for example whether they form clusters that tend to
The “savant syndrome” refers to having
isolated “islands” of high ability amidst a
sea of below-average cognitive and social
functioning. This suggest that there can be
isolated pieces of intelligence.
Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner (b. 1943) noted that different people have
intelligence/abilities in different areas.
He felt that levels of these “intelligences” could vary
independent of each other.
Factor analysis suggests, though, that for most people there
may be a correlation among these intelligences.
Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy
Robert Sternberg (b. 1949) proposed that “success” in
life is related to three types of ability.
talent that help to
tasks and manage
solving a welldefined problem
with a single
ideas to help
adapt to novel
Critique of Multiple Intelligence theories
The different intelligence
factors tend to correlate with
each other, and with a
general level of intelligence.
Success, financial and
otherwise, correlates with
Success also correlates with
hard work, connections, and
the development of expertise
(The 10 year Rule regarding
intensive daily practice).
Social and Emotional Intelligence
refers to the ability
to understand and
and managing the
component of those
•Recognizing emotions in facial
expressions, stories, and even in music
•Being able to see blended
emotions, and to predict emotional
states and changes in self and others
•Modulating and expressing emotions in
•Using emotions as fuel and motivation
for creative, adaptive thinking
People with high
often have other
beneficial traits, such as
the ability to delay
The level of emotional
the skill of reading the
others, correlates with
success in career and
other social situations.
Binet’s mental age test:
Predicting school learning
Terman and the Stanford-Binet
IQ test: Innate intelligence
Standardization, Reliability, and
Is intelligence stable over the
Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal
Extremes of Intelligence
Alfred Binet’s intelligence testing: to
predict school achievement
In the late 1800s, a new law in
France required universal
Alfred Binet knew that some
new students would need help
Binet develop tests to predict a
child’s level of success in
Goal: to determine which
students would need support.
Intelligence: a place on
the path of development?
Alfred Binet assumed that all children follow the same
course of development, some going more quickly, and
others more slowly.
Binet’s tests attempted to measure mental age--how far
the child had come along on the “normal” developmental
The implication was that children with lower ability were
delayed (with a mental age below their chronological
age), and not disabled; with help, they could improve.
Others saw intelligence as innate and fixed, including:
Lewis Terman, who turned Binet’s test into the StanfordBinet Intelligence Test.
Binet Terman Stanford-Binet IQ
Lewis Terman, of Stanford
Alfred Binet’s test, adding
new test items and
extending the age range
Terman also tested many
California residents to
develop new norms, that
is, new information about
how people typically
performed on the test.
The result was the
William Stern added a way of
scoring of the Stanford-Binet test
known as the Intelligence Quotient.
Binet reported scores as simply
one’s mental age; a 10 year old
with below average intelligence
might have a mental age of 8.
Stern described Intelligence as a
Quotient, a ratio comparing
mental age to chronological age.
Q: What IQ score do we get for
What do scores
What to do if you score
low on an IQ test?
Lewis Terman, of
University, began with
a different assumption
than Binet; Terman felt
that intelligence was
unchanging and innate
Later, Terman saw how Binet
scores can be affected
by people’s level of
education and their
familiarity with the
genes from the
language and culture
used in the test.
develop selfdiscipline and
Aptitude vs. Achievement
Achievement tests measure what you already have learned.
Examples include a literacy test, a driver’s license exam, and a final
exam in a psychology course.
Aptitude tests attempt to predict your ability to learn new skills.
The SAT, ACT, and GRE are supposed to predict your ability to do
well in future academic work.
If the SAT is an
test, should it
SAT scores (verbal + quantitative)
Wechsler’s Tests: Intelligence PLUS
The Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
and the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for
Children (WISC) measure
Timed math problems
recall of letters and
Arranging blocks to
Principles of Test Construction
In order for intelligence or other psychological
tests to generate results that are considered
useful, the tests (and their scores) must be:
Standardization: How we know whether
your IQ score is average.
Many intelligence tests generate a raw score based on the
number of answers correct. Can we turn this into a number
that tells us how smart/capable a person is compared to the
general population? Yes: by Standardizing.
Standardization: defining the meaning of
scores based on a comparison with the
performance of others who have taken the
The current method for generating an IQ score is to
determine where your raw score falls on a distribution of
scores by people of your chronological age. (Next slide).
How “Normal” is Your Score?
Number of people with this score
If we stacked a bunch of intelligence tests in piles ordered by raw
score (#of test items correct), there would be a few very high
scores and a few low scores, and a big pile in the middle; this bellshaped set of scores is called the normal curve.
Standardization: Calling the average raw score “IQ 100.”
Comparing your score
to this standard set of
scores: if you score
higher than 50
people, you your IQ is
If your score is
higher than 98
percent of the
IQ is around what
Reliability and Validity of Measures
A test or other measuring
tool is reliable when it
generates consistent results.
two halves of the test
yield the same results.
the test gives the same
result if administered
Example: If your height
was measured with a ruler
made of stretchy dough.
A test or measure has validity
if it accurately measures
what it is supposed to
Content validity: the test
correlates well with the
actual trait being
Predictive validity: the
test accurately predicts
future performance .
Example: If your height was
measured with a yardstick on
which the “inches” varied in
Stability of Intelligence
Based on this chart, at what
age might you do best at
completing a crossword
puzzle completely? Quickly?
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid intelligence: the
ability to think quickly and
This type of intelligence
tends to be strongest in
wisdom, knowledge, expertise, and
These stay strong into old age.
Extremes of Intelligence
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale is set so that about 2
percent of the population is above 130 and about 2 percent
of the population is below 70.
“Intellectual disability” refers to people who
have an IQ around 70 or below.
have difficulty with adaptive skills, such as:
conceptual skills (literacy and
social skills, including making safe social
practical daily living skills such as
hygiene, occupational skills, and using
Although some people with high intelligence
test scores can seem socially delayed or
withdrawn, most are “successful.”
“Gifted” children, like any children, learn
best with an appropriate level of challenge.
programs, however, often unfairly widen
Influences on Intelligence:
Genes and Environment
What we are born with, what we can change
Results from Twin and Adoption Studies
Environmental Influences: Early Childhood and School
Group Differences in Intelligence Scores: Due to Genes
Gender Similarities and Differences in IQ scores
Racial/Ethnic Similarities and Differences in IQ scores
The Effect of Stereotype threat on IQ scores
Two Meanings of “Bias” in test design: group harm vs.
Genetic and Environmental
Influences on Intelligence
(Nature and Nurture)
Even if we agree for argument’s sake that “success” in
life is caused in part by some kind of intelligence, there is
still a debate over the origin of that intelligence.
– Are people “successful” because of inborn talents?
– Or are they “successful” because of their unequal
access to better nurture?
Information to tease out the answers can be found in
some twin and adoption studies.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Studies of Twins Raised Apart
What explains this difference?
What explains this difference?
If three people had exactly
When you see variation
education, nutrition, and
in intelligence between
two or more people, the
psychologists speculate that
heritability of that trait
genes might be responsible
is the amount of
for perhaps 40 percent of
variation that is
their intelligence; nurture
apparently explained by
certainly made a big impact.
However, such identical
This does NOT tell us the
nurturing (which is actually
proportion that genes
impossible) could not create
contribute to the trait for
differences in intelligence.
any one person.
With identical nurture, the
heritability of intelligence
would be virtually 100
Genetic Influences on Intelligence
Identical twins seem to show
similarity in specific talents
such as music, math and
The brains of twins show
similar structure and
There are specific genes
which may have a small
influence on ability.
With age, the intelligence test scores of adoptees looks
more and more like that of their ____________ parents.
Environment has more
influence on intelligence
under extreme conditions
such as abuse, neglect, or
enrichment has a larger
impact on compensating
for deprivation than on
under normal conditions.
Schooling and Intelligence
Preschool and elementary
school clearly have at least a
temporary impact on
intelligence test scores.
College can have a positive
impact on intelligence test
scores if students have:
– motivation and incentives.
– belief that people can
– study skills, especially the
willingness to practice.
Understanding Group Differences
in Test Scores
Now, let’s look at:
understanding the impact of
within-group differences and
the impact of test bias and
stereotype threat on
Male-Female Ability Differences
Boys are more likely than girls to be at the high or low
end of the intelligence test score spectrum.
Girls tend to be better at spelling, locating
objects, and detecting emotions.
Girls tend to be more verbally fluent, and more
sensitive to touch, taste, and color.
Boys tend to be better at handling spatial reasoning
and complex math problems.
It is a myth that boys generally do better in math
than girls. Girls do at least as well as boys in overall
math performance and especially in math
Ethnic/Racial Differences in
Intelligence Test Scores
White Americans, on average, have in past decades scored
higher on intelligence tests than other groups. Still, as we can
see below, it is incorrect to use race as a basis to prejudge the
intelligence of an individual.
If Blacks scored at IQ 100 on
average and members of the
Green race scored 85 on
average, there are still lots of
Greens with higher IQ than
the average Black.
There are issues test bias and
other factors affecting scores
for people who are part of
minority ethnic and racial
Understanding Group Differences:
Within-group vs. Between-group
Group differences, including intelligence test
score differences between racial groups, can be
caused by environmental factors.
Below: the difference between groups is caused
by poor soil (environment).
The “Racial” Intelligence Test Score Gap
Racial categories are not distinct
genetically and are unscientific.
Both “whites” and “blacks” have
higher intelligence test scores
than “whites” of the 1930s.
“Whites” may have more access
to “fertile soil” for developing
their potential, such as:
schools and educational
wealth, nutrition, support, an
d educated mentors.
relative freedom from
Are Tests Biased? Let’s use the
Test makers must prevent two definitions:
“bias” in the popular sense Bias #1: In the popular sense of
of the word: making it
the word, intelligence tests are
often biased. Often, tests have
easier for one group than
another to score high on a questions which rely on
knowledge of “mainstream”
culture, which not everyone will
Test makers also strive to
be equally familiar with.
prevent the scientific form
Bias #2: Aptitude tests seem to
of bias: making it easier
predict future achievement
for one group than for
equally well for various ethnic
another to have their
groups, and for men and
assessed, and their future women.
The Effect of Stereotype Threat
Study result: Blacks/African-Americans scored higher
when tested by Blacks rather than being tested by
Study result: Blacks/African-Americans did worse on
intelligence tests when reminded of their racial/ethnic
identification right before the test. Why?
Study result: Women did worse on math tests than
men, except when they are told first that women usually
do as well as men on the test. Why?
The Power of Expectations
Stereotype threat: a feeling
that one will be evaluated based
on a negative stereotype.
Stereotype threat may interfere
with performance by making
people use their working
memory for worrying instead of
This worry, then, is selfconfirming/fulfilling: worrying
about a negative evaluation
leads to a negative evaluation.
Issues Related to Intelligence Tests
Is discriminating among college or job applicants based
on test scores better than discriminating based on
Can test scores be used as Alfred Binet suggested: to
identify those who would benefit from educational
Can a person’s worth and potential be summed up in
one intelligence test score?