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Magesh Gugan Trichy

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  1. 1. COMMUNICATION Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts, ideas and emotions. Communication is a process that involves a sender who encodes and sends the message, which is then carried via the communication channel to the receiver where the receiver decodes the message, processes the information and sends an appropriate reply via the same communication channel. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel used and the style of communication there can be various types of communication. The process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication. Verbal communication: Verbal communication is the act of saying what's on your mind with words. We often take this form of communication for granted saying things we regret and opening our mouths before we think about it. Words can hurt or they can heal. So, it's very important to become aware of what words you choose to use when communicating to others as well as to yourself.
  2. 2. 1) Face to face contact: This refers to direct speech between any two persons, or between two any two persons. The purpose of such contact is to communicate— orders, instructions, requests, information and observations. 2) Interview: An interview is generally for a discussion or conference. It is a two-way exercise, in the sense that both the parties make statements about their respective positions and ask questions. An interview may be for the purpose of recruitment or promotion of staff members. 3) Joint consultation: Joint consultation between representatives of the employers and the employees is fast gaining popularity. It is a measure of importance being given to the workers. 4) Public communication: This method of communication may be used to announce a policy decision to workers, or to give lectures as a part of the employee education programmed, or to make a speech to those seeking information. 5) Broadcasts: It relates to statement from the management to the staff generally, or to certain sections of it. It also relates to public announcements and communications addressed to the shareholders. Non-verbal communication: Non-verbal communication is the act of saying what's on your mind without speaking words. Examples of this include facial gestures (smiling, frowning), body language (arms crossed, giving someone the "finger", legs shaking resembling nervousness, sitting upright giving someone their full attention), and the impression you give to others with your appearance (dress, body image, body odor). Many times the tone of your voice can reflect non-verbal communication as well. For instance, if you are saying one thing, but your tone of voice is saying another, then that reflects how you are truly feeling without speaking a word about it (yelling and crying while saying your okay). Many times we are not aware that non-verbal communication is a part of the definition of communication.
  3. 3. 1) Proxemics: Proxemics takes into account body spacing and postures as involuntary reactions to sensory fluctuations. According to Proxemics, the physical distance between two people can be correlated to the relationship they share be it personal or social. 2) Chronemics: According to Chronemics, the timing and frequency of any action as well as the tempo of communications within an interaction contribute to the process of non-verbal communication. Time perceptions can be expressed through punctuality, willingness to wait, speed of speech or even the amount of time people are willing to listen. 3) Kinesics: Kinesics studies include the study of following elements:- - Posture: Body posture says a lot about a person’s degree of attention or involvement, the difference in status between communicators, and also the level of fondness a person has for the other one. Posture can be studied through various indicators like direction of lean, body orientation, arm position, and overall body movement. - Gestures: A thumbs up, or a simple wave of the hand says so much. Gestures form an integral part of non-verbal communication. Gestures allow us to express a variety of emotions and thoughts like contempt, hostility, approval, affection etc. 4) Haptics: Haptics refers to the study of touching as a tool of nonverbal communication. The various forms of touching that can be included in non-verbal communication include handshakes, holding, etc. The meaning conveyed from a touch is however highly dependent upon several other factors like the context of the situation or even the relationship between communicators. 5) Oculesics: Oculesics is the study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication. Eye contact can indicate a lot of emotions ranging from interest, attention, and involvement. A simple gaze is comprised of the actions of looking while talking, while listening, or even while observing.
  4. 4. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1. Make eye contact. Whether you are speaking or being spoken to, looking into the eyes of the person you are in conversation with can make the experience much more successful. Eye contact conveys interest, and encourages your partner to be interested in you in return. In less intimate settings, when giving a speech or when in front of several people, holding the eyes of different members of your audience can personalize what you are saying and maintain attention. 2. Be aware of what your body is saying. Body language can say so much more than a mouthful of words. An open stance with arms easily to your side tells anyone you are talking to that you are approachable and open to hearing what they have to say. Arms crossed and shoulders hunched, on the other hand, suggest disinterest in conversation or unwillingness to communicate. Often, communication can be stopped before it starts by body language that tells people you do not want to talk. Good posture and an approachable stance can make even difficult conversations flow more smoothly. 3. Have courage to say what you think! Communication skills begin with simple communication. Take time each day to be aware of your opinions and feelings. When you are aware of what you believe on a certain issue, you can better convey those thoughts to others. Individuals who are hesitant to speak because they do not feel they have worthwhile opinions need not fear: what is important or worthwhile to one person may not be to another and may be more so to someone else. In a world so very big, someone is bound to agree with you, or to open your eyes to an even deeper perspective. The courage to say what you think can afford you the opportunity to learn more than you did before. 4. Speak loudly enough to be heard. When you are saying what you think, have the confidence to say it so as to be heard. An appropriate volume can inform listeners that you mean what you say, you have thought about what you are saying, and what you are saying is worth hearing. An appropriate tone and volume ensure your listeners hear exactly what you are saying, and decreases room for misunderstanding.
  5. 5. 5. Practice. Communication skills can be practiced every day in settings that range from the more social to the more professional. While some people feel the need to take a special college course on communications, or to attend community lectures on giving speeches, you might find that these simple behavior tips can open up new communication opportunities to you. New skills take time to refine, but each time you use your communication skills you open yourself to opportunities and future friendships. BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION 1. Physical barriers Physical barriers in the workplace include: • marked out territories, empires and fiefdoms into which strangers are not allowed • closed office doors, barrier screens, separate areas for people of different status • large working areas or working in one unit that is physically separate from others. Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. As long as people still have a personal space that they can call their own, nearness to others aids communication because it helps us get to know one another. 2. Perceptual barriers The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently. If we didn't, we would have no need to communicate: something like extrasensory perception would take its place. The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and perceptions shape our own realities: A traveller was walking down a road when he met a man from the next town. "Excuse me," he said. "I am hoping to stay in the next town tonight. Can you tell me what the townspeople are like?" "Well," said the townsman, "how did you find the people in the last town you visited?" "Oh, they were an irascible bunch. Kept to themselves. Took me for a fool. Over-charged me for what I got. Gave me very poor service." "Well, then," said the townsman, "you'll find them pretty much the same here."
  6. 6. 3. Emotional barriers One of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the emotional barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others. "Mind your P's and Q's"; "Don't speak until you're spoken to"; "Children should be seen and not heard". As a result many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelings to others. They feel vulnerable. While some caution may be wise in certain relationships, excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships. 4. Cultural barriers When we join a group and wish to remain in it, sooner or later we need to adopt the behaviour patterns of the group. These are the behaviours that the group accept as signs of belonging. The group rewards such behaviour through acts of recognition, approval and inclusion. In groups which are happy to accept you, and where you are happy to conform, there is a mutuality of interest and a high level of win-win contact. Where, however, there are barriers to your membership of a group, a high level of game- playing replaces good communication. 5. Language barriers Language that describes what we want to say in our terms may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions, buzz-words and jargon. When we couch our communication in such language, it is a way of excluding others. In a global market place the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to talk in their language. One of the more chilling memories of the Cold War was the threat by the Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev saying to the Americans at the United Nations: "We will bury you!" This was taken to mean a threat of nuclear annihilation. However, a more accurate reading of Khruschev's words would have been: "We will overtake you!" meaning economic superiority. It was not just the language, but the fear and suspicion that the West had of the Soviet Union that led to the more alarmist and sinister interpretation.
  7. 7. 6. Gender barriers There are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. In childhood, girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, have a vocabulary twice that of boys. The reason for this lies in the wiring of a man's and woman's brains. When a man talks, his speech is located in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. When a woman talks, the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations. This means that a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalised way, features of left-brain thinking; whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion, features of both sides of the brain. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day. 7 Interpersonal barriers There are six levels at which people can distance themselves from one another: 1. Withdrawal is an absence of interpersonal contact. It is both refusal to be in touch and time alone. 2. Rituals are meaningless, repetitive routines devoid of real contact. 3. Pastimes fill up time with others in social but superficial activities. 4. Working activities are those tasks which follow the rules and procedures of contact but no more. 5. Games are subtle, manipulative interactions which are about winning and losing. They include "rackets" and "stamps". 6. Closeness is the aim of interpersonal contact where there is a high level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others. Working on improving your communications is a broad-brush activity. You have to change your thoughts, your feelings, and your physical connections. That way, you can break down the barriers that get in your way and start building relationships that really work.
  8. 8. Overcoming Communication Barriers When people are under stress, they are more apt to inject communication barriers into their conversation. These barriers can exist on a daily basis as we may work with people who have different opinions, values, beliefs, and needs than our own. Our ability to exchange ideas with others, understand other’s perspectives, solve problems and successfully utilise the steps and processes presented in this article will depend significantly on how effectively we are able to communicate with others. The act of communicating involves verbal, nonverbal, and paraverbal components. The verbal component refers to the content of our message ‚ the choice and arrangement of our words. The nonverbal component refers to the message we send through our body language. The paraverbal component refers to how we say what we say - the tone, pacing and volume of our voices. In order to communicate effectively, we must use all three components to do two things: 1. Send clear, concise messages. 2. Hear and correctly understand messages someone is sending to us.
  9. 9. CHARACTER BUILDING  You cannot dream yourself into a character; you must hammer and forge yourself one.  Be your character what it will, it will be known, and nobody will take it upon your word.  Reputation is what men and women think of us; character is what God and angels know of us.  Nothing of character is really permanent but virtue and personal worth.  A fair reputation is a plant, delicate in its nature, and by no means rapid in its growth. It will not shoot up in a night like the gourd of the prophet; but, like that gourd, it may perish in a night.  Sow an act, and you reap a habit; sow a habit, and you reap a character; sow a character, and you reap a destiny.  Talents are best nurtured in solitude. Character is best formed in the stormy billows of the world.  Reputation is for time; character is for eternity.  Character and personal force are the only investments that are worth anything.  Let us not say, every man is the architect of his own fortune; but let us say, every man is the architect of his own character. CORRELATION BETWEEN COMMUNICATION IN JOB Communication is the life blood of any job. Nothing can develop in the absence of effective internal and external communication. Besides, communication skills of the employees are given high weightage at the time of their appointment as well as promotion. Large business houses have a number of branches within the country and even abroad. For its healthy and even growth, it is extremely important that the central organization maintains a thorough and up-to-date knowledge of the various activities at the branch office. This calls for an effective and efficient network of communication. Effective communication promotes a spirit of understanding and cooperation.
  10. 10. Moral Values Story: The Wings of Burden An old legend relates that long ago God had a great many burdens which He wished to have carried from one place to another on earth, so He asked the animals to lend a hand. But all of them began to make excuses for not helping: the elephant was too dignified; the lion, too proud; and so on. Finally the birds came to God and said, "If you will tie the burdens into small bundles, we'll be glad to carry them for you. We are small but we would like to help." So God fastened upon the back of each one a small bundle, and they all set out walking across the plain to their destination. They sang as they went, and did not seem to feel the weight of their burdens at all. Every day the burdens seemed lighter and lighter, until the loads seems to be lifting the birds, instead of the birds carrying the burdens. When they arrived at their destination, they discovered that when they removed their loads, there were wings in their place, wings which enabled them to fly to the sky and the tree tops. They had learned how to carry their burdens, and their loads had become wings to carry them nearer to God. MORAL: Burdens we carry for others may become wings of the spirit, to lift us into happiness such as we have never known. Conclusion: Possessing communication skill is an important qualification at the time of both appointment and promotion.