Aim Workshop Wodak Narratives190309

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Aim Workshop Wodak Narratives190309

  1. 1. (Critical) Approaches to Narrative Analysis RUTH WODAK DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF DISCOURSE STUDIES LANCASTER UNIVERSITY http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/Ruth-Wodak/
  2. 2. Definitions ‘Grand narratives’, stories Grand narratives stories, accounts, examples, etc. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 2 London 190309
  3. 3. Why study/analyze narratives? • ‘The essence of humanness, long characterized as the tendency to make y sense of the world through rationality, has come increasingly to be described as the tendency to tell stories, to make sense of the world through narrative ’ (Johnstone narrative. 2001: 635) Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 3 London 190309
  4. 4. Narratives and Identities The construction of national identities always necessarily draws on narratives which relate the past, present and future in specific ways: p y “To put it in a nutshell, the identity narrative channels political emotions so that they can fuel efforts to modify a balance of power; it transforms the perceptions of the past and of the present; it changes the organization of human groups and creates new ones; it alters cultures by emphasizing certain traits and skewing their meanings and logic. The identity narrative brings forth a new interpretation of the world in order to modify it (Martin 1995, 13). Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 4 London 190309
  5. 5. Myths and ‘Sense making’ Sense-making • If the form of a myth as a narrative is a model for making f f f f sense of experience, then the content of particular myths embodies and makes possible this model. …The social meanings of myth may become identified with the fundamental organization of understanding by which the mind knows itself and it world. F thi reason, it i apparent th t if k it lf d its ld For this is t that we are fully to understand and explain specific human actions, we must be able to relate those actions to the social narratives or myths of the society to which the actor belongs. It is at least partly through these myths that s/he makes sense of his world and thus the meaning of their actions …. can world, only be grasped through a knowledge of the structure and meaning of the myth. (Wright 1977, p.194). • Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 5 London 190309
  6. 6. Sociolinguistic Perspectives – Constructing Identities • Narratives can provide…a SOCIOLINGUISTIC SELF- PORTRAIT: a linguistic lens through which to discover people s people’s on views of themselves (as situated within both an ongoing interaction and a larger social structure) and their experiences. Since the situations that speakers p p create through narratives—the transformations of experience enabled by the story world—are also open to evaluation i the i l i in h interactional world, these self-portraits i l ld h lf i can create an interactional arena in which the speaker’s view of self and world can be reinforced or challenged (Schiffrin, 1997, pp. 42, emphasis in the original). Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 6 London 190309
  7. 7. Two Examples – Discourse and Narrative Fables, Myths Fables Myths, Experiences – ‘post-hoc coherence’ (Wodak, 2009)
  8. 8. Meanings of ‘Discourse’? Discourse ? • A SPECIFIC ‘DISCOURSE’ (‘ +D’) (Racist, Sexist, national, (‘x+D’) (R i t S i t ti l liberal, conservative, historical, security, globalisation…) • ‘DISCOURSE OF’ (Discourse of the EU, Discourse of an organisation, of men or women, of Hillary Cli t i ti f f Hill Clinton, ….) ) • ‘DISCOURSE ABOUT’ (unemployment, racism, enlargement…) • ‘MODE + DISCOURSE’ (visual discourse, written discourse, ( , , spoken discourse…) • DISCOURSE as ‘metaphor’ (lieu de mémoire, as building, as language, as image….) • Different language-specific meanings (‘spoken language’, ‘structures of knowledge’…) Ruth Wodak, ESRC - DA 8 Seminar; Colchester 15/10/08
  9. 9. DISCOURSE, TEXT, DISCOURSE TEXT GENRE • Discourse implies patterns and commonalities of knowledge and structures; • Text is a specific and unique realization of a discourse. p q Texts belong to “genres”. • ‘Genre’: ‘a socially ratified way of using language in connection with a particular type of social activity’ activity (Fairclough 1995: 14). • Text creates sense when its manifest and latent meanings are read in connection with knowledge of the world (‘context models’, ‘shared knowledge’, ‘collective memories’ - ‘Resonance’) CADAAD 11/07/2008, Ruth 9 Wodak
  10. 10. Intertextuality, Interdiscursivity, Recontextualisation, Resonance • Intertextuality: elements of other texts (words (words, phrases, larger elements, quotes, arguments, etc) incorporated within a text • Interdiscursivity: combination of different discourses (in one or more genre/s). • Recontextualisation: Practices strategies discourses Practices, strategies, discourses, arguments may move from one ‘context’, sphere, field, scale to another (Iedema 1997; Wodak 2000) • Recontextualized elements transformed according to the ‘recontextualizing principles’ of the receiving context (‘resonance’) ( ) CADAAD 11/07/2008, Ruth 10 Wodak
  11. 11. An example from Aesop’s fables Aesop s The Hare and the Tortoise A hare one day ridiculed the short feet and slow pace of the Tortoise, who replied, laughing: “Though y be swift as the , p , gg g you wind, I will beat you in a race.” The Hare, believing her assertion to be simply impossible, assented to the proposal; and they agreed that the Tortoise should choose the course and fix the goal. On the day appointed for the race the two started together. The Tortoise never for a moment stopped, but went on with a slow but steady pace straight to the end of the course. The Hare, lying down by the wayside, fell fast asleep. At last waking up, and moving as fast as he could, he saw the Tortoise had reached the goal and was goal, comfortably dozing after her fatigue. Slow but steady wins the race. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 11 London 190309
  12. 12. Everyday Discrimination – Prejudice Stories F2: No - she she had kind of a seat behind her and there Constructing contrast was her child like she had I think (.) and she had ehm (.) Between expectations and eh the bike in her hand or something - I can’t remember experience () (.) and she goes really sweetly to the child ‘look sweetie’ g y y yes that ehm und right away I thought eh she wants to Scenic story, performed: how kids say something say something nice (.) because she also Are taught/ Socialised into said it loud so we could hear it well she goes ‘they are g y Stereotypes, and into group Tschuschen say Tschuschen to them’ (.) and the child construction just gazes calmly. Referential strategy ‘tschuschoj’ means ‘foreigner’ Evidence for recontex tualisation of elite Discourses and resona- ting belief systems CADAAD 11/07/2008, Ruth 12 Wodak
  13. 13. PREJUDICE STORIES II (‘THE GAZE ) ( THE GAZE’) • It can be hard to feel really at home in Britain [ ] people look at […] you like you sometimes (.) like you shouldn’t be there and (1.0) like they don’t want you there (UK, Pakistan, F, 42) • […] [ ] when you walk around the city people look at me (.) They do () not want migrants to be seen […] Sometimes you are afraid to go out (↓) (SW, Turkey, F, shawl) • [] […] lots of young people were standing around us ( ) and just y gp p g (-) j looking at me (-) with my pitch-black HAIR (-) tanned skin (laughs) and dressed like ah a southerner (--) and then it got really uncomfortable (-) suddenly (-) so we left the fair pretty quickly ( ) and drove back to the youth hostel ( ) and I didn‘t dare go (-) (-) didn t out on the street anymore (-) I couldn’t wait (-) for the day (.) that we drove back two days later (--) it was not a great (--) great (.) great time (G, Italy, M, 31) (, y, , ) CADAAD 11/07/2008, Ruth 13 Wodak
  14. 14. Four-Level Four Level Model of ‘Context’ Context • the immediate, language or text internal co-text; • the intertextual and interdiscursive relationship between utterances, texts, genres and discourses; tt tt d di • the extralinguistic social/sociological variables and institutional frames of a specific “context of situation ; context situation”; • the broader socio-political and historical contexts, to which the discursive practices are embedded in and related.(Wodak 2001, 2004, 2008) Ruth Wodak, ESRC - DA 14 Seminar; Colchester 15/10/08
  15. 15. Defining Narrative Narrative & Genre
  16. 16. A definition of verbal narrative • A narrative can be defined as the telling of a series of two or more interconnected events, normally involving one or more agents/participants. agents/participants A narrative has a ‘point’ or is ‘tellable’ in the context within which it occurs occurs. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 16 London 190309
  17. 17. Narrative as a ‘pre-genre’ (Swales 1990) •‘ ‘narration ( ti (spoken or written) operates k itt ) t through a framework of temporal succession in which at least some of the events are reactions to the previous events. Further characteristics of narrative are that such discourses tend to be strongly oriented towards the agents of the events being described, rather than to the events g themselves, and that the structure is typically that of a ‘plot’.’ ( yp y p (Swales 1990: 61) ) Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 17 London 190309
  18. 18. Narrative and genre • Some types of narratives have acquired the status of genres, such as: g , – Fairy tales – Novels and short stories – News reports – Etc. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 18 London 190309
  19. 19. Analysis of Narratives Narratemes, Narratemes reported speech, speech deixis, sequential analysis, argumentation, etc. argumentation etc Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 19 London 190309
  20. 20. ‘Morphology’ of Stories – ‘narratemes’ (Propp, 1962; Wright, 1977) • By deconstructing a large number of Russian folk tales into their smallest narrative units – narratemes – Propp was able to arrive at a typology of narrative structures: thirty-one generic narratemes for the genre of the Russian folk tale. While not all are always present, he found that all the tales he analysed displayed the thirty one functions in unvarying sequence performed by eight characters (hero, villain, victim, and so forth). Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 20 London 190309
  21. 21. Propp’s functions adapted by Wright (Wild West films) • ‘A member of a family l b f f il leaves h home (th h (the hero i i t d is introduced); d) • The interdiction is violated (villain enters the tale); • The villain gains information about the victim; • Victim taken in by deception, unwittingly helping the enemy; • Villain causes harm/injury to family member; • Misfortune or lack is made known; • Hero leaves home; • Hero acquires use of a magical agent; • Hero is transferred, delivered or led to whereabouts of an object of the search; • Hero and villain join in direct combat; • Villain is defeated; • Initial misfortune or lack is resolved; • Hero returns; • Task is resolved; • Hero is recognised; • Villain is punished’. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 21 • London 190309
  22. 22. • For example, narratives can be found in: – Informal conversation –PPersonal l tt l letters – Academic articles – Speeches – Media reporting – etc. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 22 London 190309
  23. 23. Narrative and temporal sequences • The series of events that a narrative is about, in their chronological order (known , g ( as ‘fabula’, ‘histoire’ or ‘story’) vs. vs • The way in which these events are told, including the sequence in which they are presented (known as ‘sjuzhet’, ‘discours’ sjuzhet , discours or ‘discourse’). Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 23 London 190309
  24. 24. Narrators • Distinction between ‘teller’ and ‘tale’. • Distinction between ‘who tells’ and ‘who who tells who sees’. • Distinction between first-person and third- first person third person narrators. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 24 London 190309
  25. 25. Oral narratives and turn taking turn-taking • Narratives as extended conversational turns • C ll b ti narratives Collaborative ti • Sequential narratives Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 25 London 190309
  26. 26. Labov’s (1972) approach to the structure of oral narratives of personal experience • Study of personal narratives told by black yp y youngsters and adults in south-central Harlem. • Model of the main elements included in these narratives. • Emphasis on evaluation in narratives i e the narratives, i.e. devices used to convey the ‘point’ or’ tellability’ of stories. stories (For a more recent paper by Labov on personal narratives see: http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~wlabov/Papers/FebOralNarPE.pdf) http://www ling upenn edu/~wlabov/Papers/FebOralNarPE pdf) Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 26 London 190309
  27. 27. Elements of oral Function Example narratives Abstract Announcement that ‘three weeks ago I had a speaker has a story to fight with this other dude tell, and brief summary outside’ Orientation Introduction of ‘I was sitting on the characters, time, place , ,p corner and’ shit, smoking , g and situation. my cigarette, you know’ Complicating action Narration of core ‘I put that cigarette down, sequence of events events. and [ ] I beat the shit […] out of that motherfucker’ Evaluation Indications of the point of ‘But it was quite an the story, why it is worth experience’, ‘I was story experience I telling and listening to. shaking like a leaf’ Result or resolution Indication of what finally ‘After all that I gave the happened. dude a cigarette, after all that’ Coda Indication that the story ‘And that was that’ is over and connection with the ongoing talk. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 27 London 190309
  28. 28. Stories as examples: Topoi- Definition Within argumentation theory, “topoi” or “loci” can be described as parts of argumentation which belong to the bli t th obligatory, either explicit or i f bl premises. ith li it inferable i They are the content-related warrants or “conclusion rules rules” which connect the argument or arguments with the conclusion, the claim. As such, they justify the transition from the argument or arguments to the conclusion (Kienpointner 1992: 194). Ruth Wodak, ESRC - DA 28 Seminar; Colchester 15/10/08
  29. 29. Argumentation (Topoi) Topos of advantage/disadvantage and f / usefulness/uselessness Topos of definition and name interpretation Topos of danger and threat Topos of finance/economy Topos of reality Topos of numbers p Topos of law Topos of authority Topos of history Topos of culture Ruth Wodak, ESRC - DA 29 Seminar; Colchester 15/10/08
  30. 30. Some Fallacies The argumentum ad hominem is a verbal attack on the antagonist s personality and antagonist's character instead of trying to refute the antagonist's arguments. The argumentum ad misericordiam consists of unjustifiably appealing for compassion and empathy in cases where a specific situation of serious difficulties intended to evoke compassion and to win an antagonist over to one's side is faked or p p g pretended. The argumentum ad populum encompasses populist appeals to “masses” of people, to “mobs” or “snobs”. The argumentum ad ignorantiam is an appeal to ignorance. This means that a standpoint, argument or thesis is to be regarded as true if it has not been refuted, I.E., if it has not been proven not to be the case. The argumentum ad verecundiam is the misplaced appeal to deep respect and reverence (Latin verecundia) for authorities. The “post hoc, ergo propter hoc”-fallacy (i.e. A before B, therefore B because of A) relies on mixing up a t ii temporally chronological relationship with a causally consequential one. ll h l i l l ti hi ith ll ti l The straw man fallacy amounts to “twisting somebody’s words”, I.E., to presenting a distorted picture of the antagonist's standpoint in order to be able to refute the standpoint or argument more easily and to make it less tenable. Ruth Wodak, ESRC - DA 30 Seminar; Colchester 15/10/08
  31. 31. An example from an official speech • This is the final portion of a speech delivered by Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi to the US Congress on 1st March 2006: Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, distinguished Members of Congress, the bonds between Americans and Italians are strong and enduring I enduring. am convinced that they will continue to strengthen and that the United States will always find in Italy a partner nation with which it can share the same vision of the world. Allow me to conclude by sharing with you a brief story. It is the story of a young man, one who had just graduated from high school. His father took him to a cemetery that was the final resting place for brave young soldiers, soldiers young people who had crossed an ocean to restore dignity and liberty to an oppressed people. In showing him those crosses, that father made his son vow never to forget the ultimate sacrifice those young American soldiers had made for his freedom. That father y g made his son vow eternal gratitude to that country. That father was my father, and that young man was me. I have never forgotten that sacrifice and that vow, and I never will. g Thank you. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 31 London 190309
  32. 32. Narrative and the representation of speech t ti f h • Much of our ‘action’ in our lives is action communicative, verbal action. • M h of what h Much f h t happens i stories i not ( in t i is t (or not just) what people/characters do, but what they say. • In a corpus based study for example corpus-based study, example, Semino and Short (2004) found that, in news reports, th representation of speech t the t ti f h accounts for almost half of all words (approximately 47 per Workshop, of the data). 32 cent Ruth Wodak, AIM London 190309
  33. 33. Some of the functions of narratives • Projection of p j particular representations of p ‘reality’ • Projection of personal identity • Strengthening of intimacy and group identity • Strengthening of feelings of national identity • Persuasion • Explanation • Moral teaching • Psychological healing • Projection of alternative worlds • Entertainment • etc. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 33 London 190309
  34. 34. Main points • Narrative is generally regarded as a crucial phenomenon in communication, and as central to what it means to be human. • Narrative, as a mode of discourse, can be seen as a ‘pre- genre ; however genre’; however, some genres are partly defined by being ‘narrative’ in nature. • Narratives may vary along a range of dimensions ( y y g g (oral vs. written, mode of narration, temporal sequencing, etc.). • Narratives can be analysed in terms of their main structural characteristics. h t i ti • Narratives can have a wide range of functions in communication. communication • Narratives are often concerned with things that are said rather than things that are done. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 34 London 190309
  35. 35. Further approaches to the study of narrative • Narrative and children’s linguistic development ( g Hudson and Shapiro p (e.g. p 1991) • Narrative and gender (e g Coates 2003) (e.g. • Narrative and mental representations (e.g. Rumelhart 1975, Schank and Abelson 1977) • Narrative and medicine (Charon 2006) Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 35 London 190309
  36. 36. Narrative and the construction of ‘reality’ in news reports • Two news reports on the same topic from different newspapers: see separate handout. handout Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 36 London 190309
  37. 37. A corpus-based study of speech corpus based presentation in narrative • Semino and Short analysed speech presentation (as well as writing and thought presentation) in a corpus of fictional and non fictional narratives non-fictional narratives, including prose fiction, newspaper news reports and (auto)biography. ( ) g py • We proposed a revised model for the analysis of speech presentation (see separate handout) • In this model, the categories are ordered in terms of decreasing (apparent) interference from the narrator/reporter and of increasing narrator/reporter, vividness, dramatisation and (apparent) faithfulness to the original utterance. g Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 37 London 190309
  38. 38. Speech presentation in the two news reports • According to Semino and Short’s method of analysis, speech presentation accounts for 53 per cent of the words i th S report and f 80 per cent of the words d in the Sun t d for t f th d in the Guardian report. • The Guardian article includes a roughly equal number of voices from the British and Russian sides of the dispute. • The Sun article predominantly focuses on the voices of p y representatives of the British side in the dispute. The only exceptions are two references to Russia’s refusal to comply with the extradition request and the direct request, speech representation of Mr Lugovoy’s threat in the final paragraph. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 38 London 190309
  39. 39. • Semino and Short (2004) found that, in ( ) their press data, the most frequently used categories were NRSA, IS, and DS. • The Guardian article includes 29 instances of speech representation; of these, ten are f h t ti f th t NRSA, nine IS, and six DS. • The Sun article includes 16 instances of speech representation; of these five are these, NRSA, four IS, and six DS. • How is speech presentation used in the Sun headline? Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 39 London 190309
  40. 40. • In both articles, DS is primarily reserved for the voices of the representatives of the British side, p , and particularly Prime Minister Brown and Foreign Secretary David Milliband. Apart from one case in each article the Russian side is article, represented via the nondirect forms of speech representation. p • In a number of cases, however, short stretches of direct quotation are included within instances of nondirect forms of speech presentation in f di t f f h t ti i order to foreground the most important parts of the utterances as in the following instance of IS utterances, from the Guardian article: – with a spokesman warning it would have “the most serious consequences” f relations b t i ” for l ti between th t the two countries. • Semino and Short refer to this phenomenon as ‘embedded quotations’. Workshop, Ruth Wodak, AIM 40 London 190309
  41. 41. • In both articles, the ‘story’ consists primarily of , y p y verbal action, and speech presentation is therefore the main textual device for the telling of the story. • Both articles rely significantly on material that is attributed to other voices and both privilege the perspective of the British side in the dispute. • This tendency is much more marked in the S Sun, where: – th dispute is a represented as a personalised affair the di ti td li d ff i involving primarily Brown and Putin, and – speech activity is presented metaphorically in terms of physical violence and aggression via the use of expressions such as ‘blasts’ and ‘stood up to’. Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 41 London 190309
  42. 42. References • Charon, R. (2006) Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Coates, J. Coates J (2003) Men Talk: Stories in the Making of Masculinities Oxford: Masculinities. Blackwell. • Hudson, J. and Shapiro, L. R. (1991) From knowing to telling: The development of children’s scripts, stories and p p p personal narrative. In McCabe, A and Peterson, C. (eds) Developing Narrative Structure. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 89-136. • Johnstone, B. (2001) Discourse Analysis and Narrative. In Schiffrin, D., Tannen D. and Hamilton H E (eds) Handbook of Discourse Analysis D Hamilton, H. E. Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell, 635-49. • Labov, W. (1972) Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Oxford: Blackwell. • Rumelhart, D.E. (19 ) Notes on a schema f stories. In Bobrow D.G. and (1975) for G Collins A. (eds.), Representation and Understanding, New York: Academic Press, 211-36. • Semino, E. and Short, M. (2004) Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing. London: Routledge. • Swales, J. (1990) Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Wodak, R W d k R. (2009) Th Discourse of Politics i A ti The Di f P liti in Action. B i Basingstoke: tk Palgrave Ruth Wodak, AIM Workshop, 42 London 190309

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