Designing, Validating &
Pre-Testing A Questionnaire
A questionnaire is a set of questions for gathering
information from individuals. You can administer
questionnaires by mail, telephone, using face-to-face
interviews, as handouts, or electronically (i.e., by e- mail
or through Web-based questionnaires).
A questionnaire is a series of questions asked to
individuals to obtain statistically useful information
about a given topic. When properly constructed and
responsibly administered, questionnaires become a vital
instrument by which statements can be made about
specific groups or people or entire populations.
DEFINING A QUESTIONNAIRE
Ask for unprompted
opinions (free to
Logical ‘yes’ or ‘no’
No place for
Easy to compute
Quick and not
Easy to answer
Questionnaires are an inexpensive tool for data collection
Questionnaires are generally sent through mail or through
investigators to respondents
But the responder remains incognito
And the method is very slow
Also non-response becomes a major problem as responders either do
not return answered questionnaires or do not answer them at all!
Questionnaires can be paper-based, or electronic
STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES (CLOSED ENDED
QUESTIONS) are based predominantly on closed questions
which produce data that can be analyzed quantitatively for
patterns and trends. The agenda is entirely predetermined by
the evaluator and provides little flexibility for respondents to
qualify their answers.
A closed question can be answered with either 'yes' or 'no'.
Do you have a library membership card?
Yes ( )
No ( )
TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND QUESTIONS
What purpose do you visit the library? (Multiple choices)
( ) To read news papers
( ) To refer books
( ) To borrow and return books
( ) To brows Internet
Scaled questions - Responses are graded on a continuum (example: rate
the appearance of the product on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the
most preferred appearance).
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Non-structured questions, or open-ended questions, are
questions where there is no list of answer choices from
which to choose. Respondents are simply asked to write
their response to a question.
Here is an example:
An open question is likely to receive a long answer.
Example of a Non-structured Question
1. What are the facilities and services do you
expect from your library?
UNSTRUCTURED OPEN ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE
2.What are the benefits for automating a library
It is best to use non-structured questions when you are
exploring new ideas and you don't really know what to
expect from the respondents.
take a mixed approach. In some situations, you may
have a partial list of answer choices, but you may still
have some doubt or uncertainty about other possible
responses. You can create a partially structured question
such as the following:
Example of a Partially Structured Question
What purpose do you use web based resources?
•For research work
•To write assignments
•To improve subject knowledge
•For the purpose of seminar presentation
Any other (Please specify): 1.________________
SEMI-STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES (PARTIALLY
A question that is answered only if the respondent
gives a particular response to a previous question. This
avoids asking questions of people that do not apply to
1. Do you have computer knowledge?
Yes ( )
No ( )
2. If ‘yes’ how long have you been using?
•From last 6 months ( )
•From last 1 year ( )
•From last 2 years ( )
•From last 3-4 years ( )
I • Define the objectives of the survey
II • Determine the sampling group
III • Write the questionnaire (language and item-
IV • Administer the questionnaire
V • Interpret the results
Do not ask
turn off the
1. Question number
2. Order of Questions
3. Check the spellings of the question statements
4. Do not use offensive language
5. Avoid double-meaning Questions
6. If there are any difficult terms in the questionnaire than do explain
7. Avoid unnecessary questions
8. Know the academic and mental capacities of the target population
9. If there are certain personal or emotional questions ask them in the
middle or at the end
10.Don't ask for elaborate answers
11.Use polite language
12.Don't write questions that already contain the answer to the
13.Let the respondents know that their privacy will be ensured
CAUTIONS REGARDING QUESTIONS AND
Good questionnaire design is a key to obtaining good
survey results. Questionnaires should be designed to
Appear as brief and small as possible. A questionnaire is
Relevant if no unnecessary for solving the business
problems is obtained . Accuracy means that the
information is valid and reliable . Question sequence is
very important to the success of the survey. The
Questions should be designed to interests respondents
And keep them involved.
1 ) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS – UMA SEKARAN
2) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS – WILLIAM